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professor at University College London (UCL), whose lab found that astrocytes in neighboring parts of the brain may regulate breathing by sensing changes in blood carbon dioxide levels.
Working with a mouse model of MS, the research team assessed astrocytes in various regions of the brain and spinal cord known to be involved in walking, vision or cognition.
The research also demonstrates the potential of human stem-cell derived astrocytes to notably reduce, and in many instances, replace animal studies of human prion disease.
The protocol offers a faster, more effective way to obtain astrocytes for brain research that could yield breakthroughs for treatments of such diverse conditions as stroke, Alzheimer's or psychiatric disorders.
Interestingly, late-gestational (lg) NSCs can differentiate to astrocytes in response to LIF, whereas mid-gestational (mg) NSCs cannot do so even though the LIF-downstream Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK-STAT3) signaling cascade is activated in the cells.
What this suggests is astrocytes are breaking down more of the brain's neural connections when the animal is sleep deprived.
In addition, compelling evidence available in recent years suggests that the astrocytes play a key role in the formation, maturation, function, and elimination of synapses as well as in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological disorders that result from synaptic defects (Allen, 2013; Clarke and Barres, 2013).
Imaging studies demonstrated a sharp elevation in astrocyte activation --a response to neuronal insult--before amyloid-beta began to accumulate in the brain, and then steadily declined.
The number of astrocytes reached a peak when the amyloid plaque started to accumulate in the brain, and neuronal function, as gauged by glucose metabolism, began to decline roughly seven years before the expected disease symptoms.
Following cerebral ischemia, astrocytes perform multiple functions beneficial for neuronal survival.
Astrocytes nestle some of their pointed projections against synapses, playing a role in how neurons make connections.
The effects of tocotrienols and tocopherols against glutamate injury in neuronal cells have been extensively studied [22]; however, to our knowledge, there is still lack of information on their effects in astrocytes.
2]-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23 [+ or -] 8% reduction in LDH release vs.
The verification of the induced astrocytes cocultures as toxic, supports the hypothesis that it is possible to directly create a model system for familial and sporadic ALS from patient skin cells.
He said that their research shows that the excessively high concentration of the GABA neurotransmitter in these reactive astrocytes is a novel biomarker that we hope can be targeted in further research as a tool for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.