Thus, wrist ROM must be limited by the combination of two principal biomechanical factors: (a) contact of the articular surfaces
of the bones, and (b) the tautness of the ligaments that span the radiocarpal joint.
While some of the smaller bones had rodent tooth marks, the articular surfaces
of a number of long bones appeared to have been chewed off by larger mammals.
Tumor length was measured by mm using a millimeter scale (1 mm) from the articular surface
to the tumor boundary on gross specimen by the same surgeons.
Mullar first measured five segments of the humerus by using the margins of articular surfaces
and key points of muscle attachment.
Collopy and Skirving  reported on a 20-year-old patient who sustained a "transchondral fracture dislocation" involving 60% of the articular surface
and fixed with two 4.
For the best bone performance, three-dimensional visualization of articular surface
of tibia should be used whenever it is possible.
6) Radiographs may demonstrate sclerosis, cystic changes, fragmentation, articular surface
collapse of the lunate, and perilunate arthritic changes.
By externally rotating the arm, more anterior articular surface
of the humeral head and increased intra-articular area for the needle insertion are exposed.
This includes its articular surface
, which is also called the trochlea, or dome.
For diagnoses based on the MR images, the presence of an accessory cleft indicated adductor dysfunction, and articular surface
irregularities and paraarticular bone edema indicated osteitis pubis.
After an injury, the most important risk factors for osteoarthritis are the severity of the injury, the existence of residual joint instability and malalignment after healing, incongruity in the remodeled articular surface
, lengthy immobilization of the joint after injury, and heavy stresses on the joint during and after healing.
Roentgenograms of the right elbow revealed a large loose body with a defect in the distal capitellar articular surface
In some fracture patterns, anatomic reduction of the articular surface
can be obtained through a new window technique using a special tamper for articular elevation followed by bone graft or structural bone substitutes.
If the affected site was close to the articular surface
, the sub-articular surface
was also filled simultaneously, and allogeneic bone with the cortical bone was used to cover the affected site in order to ensure cortical bone continuity.