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Superior articular process transverse diameter: The transverse distance between two lateral margin of the process (Bazaldua Cruz et al.).
[C] As a fast and accurate manner of channel establishment, precise and targeted translaminar drilling of the hole avoids the likelihood of the occurrence of subsequent instability caused by large removal of articular processes. [R] This surgical method is easy for HNP exposure and can provide an adequate view, including the HNP and the nerve structures, according to the surgeon's need.
Step 1 is the process of resolving synechia of articular process and facet joint capsules using acupuncture needle 1.
Cranial articular processes of the Ca: to [Ca.sub.7] caudal vertebrae were present (Figures 3(b) and 3(c)).
Note that when the posterior aspect of the lamina, which is located between the superior and inferior articular processes, appears in the lumbar vertebra it is called the pars interarticularis.
This becomes problematic when assessing the thoracic region, or utilising techniques (such as PA mobilisations) that rely on either joint line or articular process identification.
left superior articular process left ala Pelvic bone ischial tuberosity acetabulum iliac fossa iliac tuberosity iliac crest margin of greater sciatic notch superior ramus of pubis Clavicle
Barry and Livesley measured the cross-sectional area of the superior articular process using computed tomography [7].
The spinal stenosis was also observed at the L3-4 level; for further treatment, we inserted the guide bar to reach the location of L4 superior articular process facet after the determination of landmarks and skin window as described above.
[sup][20] Spinous process and laminae were removed after cutting the juncture between articular process and lamina.
The second hypothesis by Albrecht ET al (5) focus on the difference in the time of appearance of secondary ossification centres in the spinous process, transverse process, articular process, and endplate of the vertebral body.
In adolescence, secondary ossification centers, which lie in the spinous process, transverse process, articular process, and the endplate of vertebral body, complete the growth of the vertebral column.
The report identified extensive osteolytic destruction of the vertebral body with extension into the pedicles and superior articular processes. The fracture appeared chronic and included retropulsion of the bone and 50% spinal canal compromise.
Asymmetry of articular processes in particular hypertrophy of articular processes might have caused torticollis with severe constriction of cervical mobility [18].