, a subset of angiogenesis, refers to the formation of new arteries, the type of blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the tissues.
The collateral vessels are induced by sheer stress on the endothelium by the process of arteriogenesis
(note the distinction with angiogenesis which occurs in response to hypoxia).
Vascular growth is usually categorized as angiogenesis (new capillaries from pre-existing ones) and arteriogenesis
(the in situ development of vessels from angioblasts) (17).
It stops the death of neuronal cells in acute phase of a stroke and stimulates the regeneration through the stimulation of neurogenesis as well as arteriogenesis
and the reorganisation of neuronal networks.
The growth factors and cytokines such as VEGF and EPO (4), which are secreted in response to hypoxia, may stimulate the resident and remote cells to induce angio- and arteriogenesis
with paracrine end endocrine mechanisms.
More recently, in functional studies, which were done in animals, arteriogenesis
has been shown to correlate directly with the concentration of circulating monocytes and the amount of accumulating monocytes/macrophages in the perivascular tissue (26).
Collateral growth is a multistage process and all of the above stages can be disturbed by various risk factors, which can harm the integrity of arteriogenesis