To support this argument, this study examines how the smallpox epidemic of 1780-82 affected intertribal relations on the northeastern Plains, between western Sioux groups and the semisedentary villagers, the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras.
Finally, the fourth part examines the economic and military dimensions of smallpox depopulation among the villagers to explain why the French-Canadian trader Pierre Antoine Tabeau remarked that the Arikaras were enmeshed in "the slavery of the Sioux.
Throughout much of the eighteenth century, as Sioux groups migrated westward onto the Plains, they lived in the shadows of the powerful semisedentary tribes that inhabited the upper Missouri, the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras.
In 1845, the Like-a-Fishhook village of earth-covered lodges and log cabins was established by Mandan and Hidatsa survivors and, shortly afterwards, in 1862, their numbers were further swelled by the Arikara.
Here continue to live the descendants of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara peoples.
For more information on the Three Affiliated Tribes, see the following official website for the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, which includes excellent and very useful historical background information:http://www.
By the fall of 1823, the hostile Arikaras had been driven from their villages on the Missouri, making passage north possible again.
The Arikara Indian bullets and arrows were pouring down upon their exposed position on the sandbar.
Roy Willard Meyer, The Village Indians of the Upper Missouri: The Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras
(Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977), 39-40
Rogers includes a summary description of Arikara culture, a more detailed analysis of the attitudes of Arikaras and their Euroamerican trading partners towards each other, and descriptions of what he considers influential events forming the basis for his chronology.
In this work, Rogers analyzes 21 Missouri River village sites usually associated with historic Arikara settlements.
Rogers continues by noting that his inferred uses "are based on common classifications found in most archaeological studies of Arikara sites" (p.
While national policy encouraged farming among Native people, and newspaper accounts claimed the displays as evidence of that success, among the Dakota, Arikara, Mandan, Hidatsa, Pawnee, and many other tribes in the Midwest there was a long history of grain farming.
The settlement, consisting of lodges made from logs, earth, and sod, was occupied by about 1000 CE by ancestors of the Mandan or Arikara peoples.
Although Howe's immediate family was not living along the Missouri, the project was devastating to the Great Sioux Nation as a whole, as well as to the Mandan and Arikara peoples, whose ancestral lands surrounded the Mitchell Corn Palace.