Coddington's (1988) proposed test relies upon the central assumption that the apomorphic
and plesiomorphic characters borne by sister taxa in current environments have equivalent selective consequences relative to their counterparts in the ancestral population in which the apomorphy first arose.
Finally, we asked whether particular types of characters have a propensity to be lost repeatedly; this is reflected in phylogenetic analyses by homoplasious apomorphic
losses (Table 3).
As such, it remains unclear whether the simple stigma in Eremitis is plesiomorphic or apomorphic
g., Hadrianus corsoni) as apomorphic
, including Testudo costarricansis.
However, they found no apomorphic
characters in the larvae, but nonetheless retained Reesa within Megatominae as sister to a clade containing such genera as Trogoderma, Thaumaglossa, Megatoma, and Anthrenocerus (see also Hong et al.
The rhynchokinesis of Neognathae was considered by Zusi (1993) to be an apomorphic
condition among birds, derived from the ancestral prokinetic condition with wide nasal openings.
In the case of MG 4978, the caudal ribs are short and far from the posterior articulation, which distinguish them from the apomorphic
condition for titanosauriforms defined by D'Emic (2012).
The horizontal orientation of the condyles is considered apomorphic
, and McEachran et al.
The identification of an aqp2-like ortholog in the ancient chondrichthyan lineage would resolve the origin of the apomorphic
gene clusters in vertebrates.
The heavily spined and multi-ridged Phasmatodea proventriculus is thus an apomorphic
trait that evolved with their obligatorily folivorous diet: breaking down and oxidizing the relatively large leaf fragments swallowed to a small enough size that the endogenous phasmid digestive enzymes (Shelomi et al.
Until such a hypothesis is available, relationships will continue to be based on apomorphic
and ambiguous characters.
George (2012) reviewed previously used morphological characters of North American Quaternary shrews with a phylogenetic approach to delimit apomorphic
characters that could be used to identify specimens.
grelli species group, including these two species, defined by an apomorphic
colour pattern of males and females, consisting of grey to black margins on dorsal and anal fins.
Both Parsons and Popov indicated a divergence of the Corixidae after the Nepoidea in their phylogenetic dendrograms and they stated that that group was very advanced developmentally and represented many apomorphic
One of these two states (transformational homologs) must be ancestral (the "plesiomorphic" state) and the other must be derived (the "apomorphic
" state) .