Tracing the confluence of factors that led to the Camp David Accords and ensuing peace treaty of 1979, the film examines not only the powerful personalities - Menachem Begin, Anwar El-Sadat
, and Jimmy Carter - that drove the peace process, but also the secret liaisons, communications, and third-party world leaders who played important yet seldom understood roles in forging the peace agreement that has become the cornerstone of stability in the Middle East.
The visit to Jerusalem of Egypt's then-President Anwar el-Sadat
, and the ensuing Egypt-Israel breakthrough at Camp David, took place only after successful behind-the-scenes understandings.
Egypt enacted a series of emergency laws following the 1981 assassination of Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat
that make demonstrations illegal.
Many Americans applauded Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat
for his political courage in visiting Jerusalem three decades ago -- a decision for which he ultimately paid with his life ?
Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia), Stephen Bantu Biko (South Africa), Anwar el-Sadat
(Egypt), Indira Gandhi (India), Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) and Ahmad Shah Massood (Afghanistan).
1979: Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat
signs a mutual pact with Israel and Sinai is returned to Egypt.
She reported on the government and the Knesset, covering state visits of dozens of VIPs, ranging from President Anwar El-Sadat
of Egypt to Queen Beatrice of the Netherlands, from Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis to Henry Kissinger to Elizabeth Taylor.
His trip was made despite the fact he has been known as a dangerous Islamic fundamentalist terrorist for more than 20 years and had been named as head of the Egyptian terror group after its assassination of Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat
Abdel El-Moneim El-Qaysooni, the former minister of economy, and the founder of AIB, commissioned by President Anwar El-Sadat
, is one of the most prominent figures to take over the post of the bank's chairman, as well as Ahmed Nazmi, a former CBE governor, and Mostafa Khalil and Atef Ebeid, former Egyptian prime ministers.
Egypt was one of Moscow's closest Arab allies for two decades, starting in the 1950s, under Egypt's late nationalist leader Gamal Abdel-Nasser, but relations between the two countries froze in the 1970s when former President Anwar El-Sadat
shifted Egypt's foreign policy and military alignment toward the United States soon after the 1973 Egyptian war with Israel and the signing of a peace treaty in 1979.
Backed by the tamed Salafists, the former assassins (Jam Islamiya) of late president Anwar el-Sadat
and Al-Jihad militant group, the MB warned of a blood bath if its candidate lost the presidential race.
The roughly 30 members mulling a walkout include political analysts Wahid Abdel-Meguid and Manar El-Shorbagi; political and law professors Gaber Nassar, Souad Rizk and Abdel-Gelil Moustafa; political activists Ayman Nour, Anwar El-Sadat
and Salah Hassaballah; and former Wafdist MPs Mohamed Dawoud, Fouad Badrawi and Ibrahim Kamel.
, a nephew of the former president and a member of the dissolved Parliament, said the decision "was a surprise for everyone".
However, Hosni Mubarak, who led the Air Force before rising to prominence when President Anwar el-Sadat
appointed him vice president in 1975, worked hard to keep the army out of politics and under his control.
The decision of the late president Anwar el-Sadat
to welcome the Shah in his final days prevented normal relations between Egypt and the Iran of the Islamic Revolution.