The DDS, which releases the anticholinergic agent
trospium chloride, can be applied into the bladder through the urethra.
Furthermore, new-generation anticholinergic agents
, such as darifenacin and solifenacin, are selective for the M3 receptor and thus offer the potential of reduced side-effects.
Possible Etiologies of Agitation Etiology Examples Drugs and drug withdrawal Anticholinergic agents
, caffeine, marijuana, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), steroids Medical conditions Delirium, dementia, hyperthyroidism, infection, pain, renal impairment Metabolic changes Electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, hypo- or hyper-glycemia, hypoxia Psychiatric conditions Depression, mania, personality disorders, psychosis Sources: Moore & Pfaff, 2013; Olson, 2012; Somes et al.
Two main classes of drugs, which are usually prescribed for PD are dopamine agonists and anticholinergic agents
Cervical dystonia can be treated with botulinum toxin therapy, oral medications such as anticholinergic agents
and muscle relaxants, or surgery.
A Many of the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamines belong to a class of medications called anticholinergic agents
, which affect neurotransmitters in the brain.
However, dependent on etiological factors, patients require treatments such as CISC and anticholinergic agents
in the postoperative period.
Another Cochrane review compared anticholinergic agents
with placebo or no treatment in 9 studies that included 221 patients.
Among those who are cognitively impaired, however, one should be very cautious and start with low doses of anticholinergic agents
KEY WORDS: Atropa belladonna, Anticholinergic agents
, Plant poisoning, Neurotoxicity syndromes, Toxic encephalopathy.
Culver warns that patients with emphysema and heart disease should carefully consider the risks and benefits of the class of bronchodilators known as anticholinergic agents
that show antagonistic effects mainly on muscarinic receptor are thought to be effective in treating OAB.
salbutamol 400-800 [micro]g; terbutaline 500-1 000 [micro]g; fenoterol 200-400 [micro]g) and anticholinergic agents
(ipratropium bromide 80 [micro]g) may be given by pressured metered dose inhaler and spacer, or by jet nebulisation (salbutamol 2.
I think most of us in the pulmonary community are not prepared to abandon the use of anticholinergic agents
in patients with COPD on the basis of provocative, but otherwise not replicated, results," he says.
And while physostigmine is the standard antidote for overdoses involving pure anticholinergic agents
, it is contraindicated in TCA overdoses because of several case reports of asystolic cardiac arrest.