6,48 9,31 Brachidonthes granulata 6,74 9,69 Semimytilus algosus 5,18 7,45 Anthozoa
Since Metchnikoff's (1893) classic demonstration of a foreign-body response in Scyphozoa (translucent jellyfish), we have made little additional progress in identifying the primary immune cells in cnidaria in general--hydrozoa, anthozoa
, schyphozoa, and cubozoa.
Briefly, all species of precious coral in the Western Pacific belong to one of three Orders within the Class Anthozoa
, Phylum Coelenterata.
TABLE 2 Number species per taxonomic group Number of species Cyanobacteria 5 Bacillariophyta 3 Dinoflagellata 14 Chlorophyta 10 Rhodophyta 28 Ochrophyta 6 Magnoliophyta 5 Protozoa: Foraminifera 33 Cnidaria 100 Anthozoa
23 Scyphozoa 2 Hydrozoa 75 Ctenophora 1 Plathyhelminthes 9 Acanthocephala 2 Nematoda 1 Annelida 4 Sipunculida 2 Mollusca 93 Bivalvia 55 Gastropoda 38 Crustacea 147 Malacostraca 101 Decapoda 94 Maxillopoda 44 Other Crustacea 2 Pycnogonida 1 Bryozoa 9 Echinodermata 11 Chaetognatha 1 Chordata 92 Fishes 82 TOTAL 577 Fig.
Masson's trichrome (Sumner & Sumner, 1969) was suggested by Manuel (1981) as a general stain for Anthozoa
, allowing for a good contrast between the mesoglea and the cellular regions.
We thank the Center of Marine Biology of the University of Sao Paulo for hosting us during the field studies, the administration of the Ilhabela Yacht Club for allowing us to sample in the marina; Marcos Barbeitos and Carlos Rocha for their field help; Vasily Radashevsky for helping with the identification of the Spionidae Polydora colonia; James Roper for the English text review; Maria de Los Angeles Becerril for the Spanish abstract; Julia Beneti for information on Anthozoa
Toward a natural classification: phylogeny of acontiate sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa
The rest of megafauna were constituted by six species of crustaceans Heterocarpus reedi (n = 330), Projasus bahamondei (n = 130), Munida propinqua (n = 8), Uroptychus parvulus (abundance no recorded), Chirostylus hendersoni (n = 32) and the stomatopod Pterygosquilla armata (n = 47), two species of ophiuroids (Gorgonocephalus chilensis and Astrotoma agassizi; n = 14 and 102, respectively), an unknown species of asteroid (n = 1) and one species of Anthozoa
Gorgonias-Filo CNIDARIA, clase ANTHOZOA
, subclase OCTOCORALLIA.
Nematocyst size and distribution are integral to species identification in the cnidarian class Anthozoa
(reviewed by Fautin, 1988; Ostman, 2000).
Among the marine organisms, Anthozoa
are ecologically important animals, which need to protect themselves against the lethal or debilitating consequences of microbial or parasitic invasion (Ramalingam & Ramarani, 2006).
Published genomic and proteomic studies (Table 1) span two subclasses within class Anthozoa
and include a total of 8 genera and I 1 species (Fig.
The chemistry and chemical ecology of octocorals (Coelenterata, Anthozoa
The abundance of crustaceans was positively correlated with Polychaeta abundance, while Anthozoa
abundance was negatively correlated with fish and positively with Echinodermata (Spearman, N=20, p<0.
Este aspecto tambien fue observado en el norte del Estado de Rio de Janeiro, explicando la clasificacion constante para Anthozoa