Fetal-exposed women with major depressive disorder had the greatest hyperactivity in the anterior hypothalamus
, and the greatest hypoactivity in the anterior cingulate cortex, the or-bitofrontal cortex, and the hippocampus.
They also found decreased activation in the anterior hypothalamus
and other areas of the brain that have hypocretinergic pathways (neural pathways activated by hypocretin).
As it has been reported previously in lab rats, VIP fibers are dense in the subparaventricular zone of the hypothalamus (sPVZ, Figure 7a), moderate in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT, Figure 7c), and less dense in the anterior hypothalamus
The medial preoptic nuclei, located in the anterior hypothalamus
, play a role in sexual behavior.
By 1991, however, neuroscientist Simon LeVay's study of men's brains revealed that a mass of neurons within the anterior hypothalamus
, which is believed to manage sexual behavior, tended to be twice as large in gays as in straights.
One of the first widely reported studies, Simon LeVay's work at the Salk Institute in 1991, suggests a part of the brain--the anterior hypothalamus
, which regulates metabolism and sexual response--is twice as large in straight men as in gay men.