Particularly common symptoms include self-induced antepartum hemorrhage
, premature labor, premature rupture of membranes, hyperemesis gravidarum, reduction in fetal movements, and seizures (Ara & Sultana, 2003; Miller, 2008; Puri 2006).
In multivariate analysis adjusted for income and race or ethnicity, women who were physically abused during pregnancy were significantly more likely than others to have experienced antepartum hemorrhage
(odds ratio, 3.
07%) for transfer because of anticipated risks of prematurity, malpresentations, antepartum hemorrhage
and postpartum hemorrhage.
It is frequently associated with antepartum hemorrhage
and is a precipitating factor for preterm labour.
This contradiction can be explained by our cultural trend of marriages and start of reproductive life in our women at a younger age group Regarding presentation, majority of patients were symptomatic (89%) having history of antepartum hemorrhage
between 24 36+ weeks of gestation (74.
Maternal outcomes were also collected and included infection, cesarean section and antepartum hemorrhage
Identified risk factors for PPH were Asian race, maternal blood disorders, prior PPH, history of retained placenta, multiple pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage
, genital tract lacerations, macrosomia (>4 kg), and induction of labor, as well as chorioamnionitis, intrapartum hemorrhage, still birth, compound fetal presentation, epidural anesthesia, prolonged first/second stage of labor, and forceps delivery after a failed vacuum.
In developing countries antepartum hemorrhage
and postpartum hemorrhage is still cause of maternal mortality and morbidity.
12(20%), vertical transmission took place in 20(33%) cases.
Keywords: Antepartum hemorrhage
, Grand multipara, Maternal mortality, Multiparty, Obstetric complications, Postpartum hemorrhage.
Among the various risk factors maternal age, illiteracy, rural residence, poverty, joint family setup, history of PROM, previous low birth weight babies, history of antepartum hemorrhage
, multiparity, previous perinatal loss, previous premature babies, threaten abortion, were the prominent risk factors found in majority of cases.
The researchers determined the cardiac arrest rate among women with various coexisting conditions, and found the following: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (27%), postpartum hemorrhage (25%), antepartum hemorrhage
(16%), amniotic fluid embolism (14%), cardiomyopathy (13%), anesthetic complications (9%), sepsis (8%), aspiration pneumonitis (8%), and venous thromboembolism (7%).