In contrast, in developing countries and especially in rural areas where patients do not have access to standard medical care systems, the aesthetic aspect of congenital anophthalmos
is of secondary importance.
Table 2 Braille students distributed according to nosological groups, principal ophthalmic diagnoses, and year of birth (6-year periods) Diagnoses N 60-65 66-71 72-77 78-83 Sequelae to brain disorders Anomaly of the brain 2 1 (unspecified) Brain tumor 8 1 2 Sequelae to brain disorders (unspecified) 13 2 1 4 1 Congenital ocular anomalies Albinism (unspecified) 1 1 Coloboma of uvea 3 Congenital anomaly 2 1 Congenital anophthalmos
9 3 1 1 Congenital cataract (a) 16 5 5 3 Congenital glaucoma 12 3 3 1 1 Congenital maculapathy 1 Congenital nystagmus 1 1 Cong.
(b) LA = Leber's amaurosis; A = anophthalmos
; M = microphthalmos; ROP = retinopathy of prematurity; and CB = cortical blindness.
These included microcornea (2%), microcornea with iris coloboma (1%), sclerocornea (0.5%), iris coloboma (7%), aniridia (6.5%), ectopia lentis (4%), coloboma of lens (1%), anophthalmos
(0.5%) and microphthalmos (1.5%).
A study of specialized schools in India reported that corneal staphyloma, scars, and phthisis bulbi were the major causes of blindness and low vision (26.4%), followed by microphthalmos, anophthalmos
, and colobomas (Rahi, Sripathi, Gilbert, & Foster, 1995).
In a study (11) by Shah et al to determine the structural abnormalities in patients with anophthalmos
, coloboma and microphthalmos, 32.1% of 135 patients were found to have a craniofacial anomaly.
Of these four children (two boys and two girls), three were completely blind (microphthalmos; anophthalmos
; and retinopathy of prematurity, Stage 5) and one had minimal light perception (Leber's amaurosis).
and microphthalmos are an important causes of visual impairment.