The species of ankylosaur
was a squat plant-eater that roamed southern Utah on four legs about 76 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous Period.
The discovery of johnsoni also showed how ankylosaurs
had more diverse appearances than paleontologists first thought.
Its powerful tail "could inflict serious damage on opponents, such as predatory theropods or maybe even other ankylosaurs
competing for mates or territory," according to (http://www.rom.on.ca/en/collections-research/research-community-projects/zuul) a ROM statement explaining the tails.
And what was that ankylosaur
's tail club really for?
These vertebrate fossil assemblages are mainly dominated by titanosaurian sauropods, rhabdodontid ornithopods, nodosaurid ankylosaurs
and dromaeosaurid theropods among dinosaurs, alligatoroid crocodyliforms, bothremydid and solemydid turtles, and zhelestid mammals.
The four species span a period of about 10 million years and Arbour's research shows that three of those ankylosaurs
species lived at the same time in what is now Dinosaur Provincial Park in southern Alberta.
From past finds, paleontologists know that the Vega Island area was home to ankylosaurs
and other herbivorous dinosaurs.
In these areas, the deposits of late Campanian to latest Maastrichtian age have yielded a diverse and abundant tetrapod fossil record that comprises dinosaurs (sauropods, theropods, ornithopods and ankylosaurs
; LopezMartinez et al., 2001; Riera et al., 2009; Pereda-Suberbiola et al., 2009; Cruzado-Caballero et al., 2010; Vila et al., 2012; Prieto-Marquez et al., 2013; Torices et al., in press), pterosaurs (Dalla Vecchia et al., 2013), crocodilians (Puertolas et al., 2011; Puertolas-Pascual et al., 2014), turtles (Marmi et al., 2012), and amphibians and squamate reptiles (Blain et al., 2010).
Leaf-shaped teeth are found in dinosaurs like stegosaurs and ankylosaurs
that eat plants.
Mallon said he is hoping to see scutes, or bony plates or scales that were on the skin of ankylosaurs
Carpenter is currently studying the relationships among the known ankylosaurs
, a suborder that includes Nodosauridae and Ankylosauridae.
During the late Early Cretaceous two main groups of quadruped dinosaurs (sauropods and ankylosaurs
) inhabited Europe, including the Iberian Peninsula, though the osteological record is scarce (Martin et al, 1993; Upchurch et al, 2004; Vickaryous et al., 2004; Buffetaut and Nori, 2012; Kirkland et al., 2013).
Famous dinosaurs in that area included predatory tyrannosaurs, the duck-billed hadrosaurs, heavily armored ankylosaurs
, and horned dinosaurs known as ceratopsians.
In contrast, small herbivores (ankylosaurs
and pachycephalosaurs), carnivorous dinosaurs (tyrannosaurs and coelurosaurs), and enormous herbivores without advanced chewing abilities (sauropods) remained relatively stable or even slightly increased in biodiversity.
The teeth of some groups have been studied in depth, such as those of the sauropods (Canudo et al, 2002b), the ankylosaurs
(Canudo et al, 2004), the theropods (Ruiz-Omenaca and Canudo, 2003; Ruiz-Omenaca et al., 2005; Gomez-Fernandez and Canudo, 2010) and the mammals (Badiola et al, 2008; 2009).