Key words: air pollutant, angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme, copper, ERK, p38, vanadium.
The end product of this pathway, angiotensin II, is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, and its effects are mediated primarily by the G protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 receptor (A[T.
Compared with these vasoactive pathways, the angiotensin II-A[T.
This is the first demonstration that PM-induced vascular effects may be mediated by the angiotensin signaling.
Interaction of a non-peptide agonist with angiotensin II AT1 receptor mutants.
Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, is mainly present in the vascular endothelium.
About 90% of angiotensin II is present in tissues, whereas only 10% is found in the circulation.
ACE, also known as kininase II, is a bivalent dipeptidyl carboxyl zinc metalloproteinase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II.
Immunohistochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions within human coronary arteries have confirmed that significant sources of tissue ACE and angiotensin II are within regions of inflammatory cells, especially areas of clustered macrophages, as well as microvessel endothelial cells.
These methods obviously have applications that go well beyond the renin-angiotensin system, but give practical, "real life" examples using areas of angiotensin research.
We are given a limited sampling of the interesting and current investigations occurring in the field of angiotensin research, and likewise only a few of the many possible molecular biologic, physiologic, and other investigational techniques are considered.
In addition to the well-known key functions of angiotensin II [angiotensin-(1-8) octapeptide] in the renin-angiotensin system, physiological activity has also been reported for the angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] heptapeptide (1).
Radioimmunoassay calibration curves with different angiotensin peptides were established in the Tris-albumin buffer, and the sensitivity of the antiserum against a given peptide was defined as the reciprocal of the concentration of unlabeled peptide that displaced 50% of the [sup.
Specific activity of the detection angiotensin was 1500-2200 pCi/fmol, i.
The generation and metabolization of angiotensin peptides after specimen sampling is a major problem, and enzyme inhibition before peptide measurement is crucial (11-13).