a new biologic entity, differing from any cell present at any time in normal [development]." Hansemann's "unknown agency" is the progressive unbalancing of the genome every time that aneuploid cells
divide--scrambling chromosomes, much like shuffling a deck of cards.
Researches have shown that more than 50% of in vitro derived embryos contain aneuploid cells
. Extended cultivation until the blastocyst stage somewhat contributes to increased implantation rates, but it has been proven that aneuploid embryos can reach high-quality blastocyst stage as well as euploid embryos [7, 8].
Factor described Publications Jardine et al., 2000  Young age of patients Suh et al., 1977  Female sex Roh et al., 2016  Tobacco smoking Jardine et al., 2000  Histopathological (i) Enhanced hyperkeratosis and presence of squamous hyperplasia Katori et al., 2006  (ii) Elevated mitotic index (iii) Lack of inflamed polyps (iv) Greater amount of aneuploid cells
Liu, 1990  Table 3: Review of the literature on particles which may be potential biomarkers in the diagnosis of IP, recurrence, and malignant transformation.
Van der Aa et al., "Mouse model of chromosome mosaicism reveals lineage-specific depletion of aneuploid cells
and normal developmental potential," Nature Communications, vol.
The Aurora-A excess interferes with different cell cycle checkpoints, that is, the late G2 checkpoint, which restrains genetically aberrant cells to enter mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint, which blocks the metaphaseanaphase transition in cells with defective spindles, and the postmitotic G1 checkpoint, which arrests cell cycle in aneuploid cells
An age-related increase in aneuploid cells
in human lymphocytes has been reported in other studies.
In addition to this problem of partial screening, there was the issue of mosaicism, in which both euploid and aneuploid cells
Mitotic catastrophe occurs due to mitotic failure caused by defective cell cycle checkpoints and development of aneuploid cells
and and can be accompanied by morphological alterations including micronucleation and multinucleation.
It maintains viability of aneuploid cells
, bypassing cell-cycle checkpoints and promoting resistance to microtubule-targeting agents.