, spina bifida and hydrocephalus: Incidence related to sex, race and season of birth, and incidence in siblings.
They are caudal regression syndrome (including defects of the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae, distal spinal cord disruption with neurologic impairment, and lack of growth in the caudal region); spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and other CNS defects such as anencephalus
; cardiac anomalies (ventricular and atrial septal defects and transposition of great vessels); anal/rectal atresia; renal malformations (agenesis, cystic kidney, and ureter duplex); situs inversus (transposition of viscera); and femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome.
They were "hole-in-the-heart" defects, cleft palate, and anencephalus
- a condition that causes much of the brain, skull and scalp to be missing at birth.
Harold Elwood, Epidemiology of Anencephalus
and Spina Bifida (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), 87-90; J.
Various defects show significant effect of consanguinity like Club foot, Polydactyly, syndactyly, Oligodactyly, Dysplasia of acetabulum, Atresia ani, Harelip with or without cleft palate, Simple cleft palate, Anencephalus
, Anophthalmus and microphthalmus, Hydrocephalus.
Although estimates for both areas are higher for certain malformations (e.g., anencephalus
) when stillbirths are included in the calculations, the patterns observed do not change.
Norway 1993-1998 5,764 any birth Birth registry (> 2002 Sample defect, 138 NTDs, 16 weeks) population: 46 anencephalus
, 285,631 81 spina bifida, 68 hydrocephalus, 537 cardiac defects, 279 ventricular septal defects, 73 atrial septal defects, 192 respiratory defects, 343 oral cleft defects, 95 cleft palate, 67 cleft lip, 232 urinary tract defects, 102 obstructive urinary tract defects Shaw et al.