trifurca, which is demonstrably capable of anemophily
, is indistinguishable from that of E.
These mechanisms include protogyny, chasmogamy, heterostyly, self-incompatibility, self-sterility, entomophily, anemophily
, and hydrophily.
Dioecy has been associated with fleshy fruits and animal dispersal (Bawa 1980, Givnish 1980, 1982, Flores and Schemske 1984, Muenchow 1987), entomophily (Bawa and Opler 1975, Bawa 1980, Bawa and Beach 1981, Beach 1981) and anemophily
(Conn et al.
, which was observed only in two species of Croton, has already been noted in other species of this same genus (Dominguez and Bullock, 1989; Parra-Tabla and Bullock, 2002; Passos, 1995).
has been confirmed in several palms (Listabarth, 1992b; Luna et al., 2005; Savolainen et al., 2006), a large body of data on palm entomophily has accumulated over the last decades (e.g.
Also, we included a setting to detect anemophily
(AN) by emasculating flowers in bud and leaving them covered with a bag that allowed the passage of air and pollen but not insects nor birds.
Gynodioecy has also been reported for Pernettya prostrata [called Gaultheria myrsinoides Kunth by Middleton (1991)] from Ecuador and in the mountains of temperate Argentina/Chile, forcing outcrossing with insect vectors or resulting in anemophily
(Anderson et al., 2000; Arroyo & Squeo, 1987).