It was not until more than 100,000 years later that anatomically modern humans
appear in the fossil record.
One example is the secular adaptation of xenobiotic detoxification systems to shifting ecosystems beginning with Homo erectus during the Early Pleistocene and continuing with the succeeding members of the genus during the Middle Pleistocene and the eventual migration of anatomically modern humans
out of Africa in the Late Pleistocene up to the Eocene.
We can regard the roughly one hundred thousand years between the first appearance of anatomically modern humans
and the symbolic breakthrough as a kind of gestation period marking a slow buildup in mental capabilities.
For example, he contends that it is key to the survival of anatomically modern humans
Among the topics are whether the Early Aurignacian in Central Europe represents the initial dispersion of anatomically modern humans
in Europe, archaeological and palaeoecological studies of palaeolithic industries before the Last Glacial Maximum between 32,000 and 20,000 ago, whether fishing was an important subsistence activity in the Upper Palaeolithic of Southwest Germany, imprints discovered on palaeolithic ceramics at sites in Lower Austria, and different excavation techniques and their stratigraphic results.
Anatomically modern humans
, Homo sapiens, first appeared in Africa between about 250,000 and 130,000 years ago, according to genetic evidence.
The scientists wrote yesterday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ``This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans
contributed to the current European gene pool.
This surviving population of Homo erectus in Indonesia would have been alive at the same time as anatomically modern humans
- Homo sapiens - and also Neanderthals, whose exact place in human evolution is the subject of endless debate.
This project targets the shift and variability of human adaptive systems in the scope of the dispersion of the Anatomically Modern Humans
(AMHs), from the African continent to throughout Eurasia 60,000 years ago.
In 2005, Professor Richards led research published in an article in the journal Science that used mitochondrial DNA evidence to show that anatomically modern humans
dispersed from their Africa homeland via a "southern coastal route" from the Horn and through Arabia, about 60,000 years ago - after the Toba eruption.
The new divergent lineage, which was found in an individual who submitted his DNA to Family Tree DNA, a company specializing in DNA analysis to trace family roots, branched from the Y chromosome tree before the first appearance of anatomically modern humans
in the fossil record.
Furthermore, it is doubtful that these south Siberian Neandertals evolved into anatomically modern humans
, as some Russian workers believe.
Our analysis indicates this lineage diverged from previously known Y chromosomes about 300,000 ago, a time when anatomically modern humans
had not yet evolved," said Michael Hammer, an associate professor in the University of Arizona's department of ecology and evolutionary biology and a research scientist at the UA's Arizona Research Labs.
Recent genetic studies suggest that Neanderthals may have bred with anatomically modern humans
tens of thousands of years ago in the Middle East, contributing to the modern human gene pool.
The earliest evidence of red-pigment use comes from that time, prior to the evolution of anatomically modern humans