0.9 [+ or -] 0.2 1.8 [+ or -] 0.4 Anaphalis margaritacea
5.1 [+ or -] 1.2 3.6 [+ or -] 0.7 Antennaria rosea 7.6 [+ or -] 1.6 1.8 [+ or -] 0.0 Arenaria congesta 1.0 [+ or -] 0.2 Arnica cordifolia 0.7 [+ or -] 0.2 1.2 [+ or -] 0.5 Arnica sororia 2.7 [+ or -] 0.5 6.3 [+ or -] 0.0 Balsamorhiza sagittata 3.8 [+ or -] 0.6 Barbarea orthoceras Besseya rubra 0.3 [+ or -] 0.0 Calochortus elegans 0.3 [+ or -] 0.0 Calochortus eurycarpus 0.5 [+ or -] 0.1 0.3 [+ or -] 0.0 Camassia quamash ssp.
In 1990, individuals of several species were identified as being older than 1 yr and having established from seed on the deep tephra, a distinction not made in earlier sampling; the majority were Vaccinium spp., and others included Achlys triphylla, Anaphalis margaritacea
, Epilobium sp., Erythronium montanum, Hieraceum albiflorum, Mitella sp., Rubus sp., Salix sp., Sorbus sitchensis, Tierella trifoliata, Valeriana sitchensis, Veratrum viride, and Viola spp.
Helens, Morris and Wood (1989) found that Lupinus lepidus, the initial pioneer on the barren pyroclastic flows, reduced the survival of two invading species, Anaphalis margaritacea
and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) in the first year.
A third site, PE, on moist silt/mud deposits from an intermittent wash, supported a dense, varied herbaceous community, with Epilobium spp, Lupinus lepidus, Anaphalis margaritacea
and Salix spp.
Wood and del Moral (1988) documented the pattern of plant establishment over the Pumice Plains 6 yr after the eruption and found that three species - Anaphalis margaritacea