By the time of the Amoraim
, the main antagonists were the Christians, who claimed that God had forsaken the Jews because of their sins and because they had not accepted the Christian messiah.
As such, it is a more refined work, and as a result, and for a variety of other reasons (the Babylonian Talmud is later than the Jerusalem and hence able to override the decisions of the latter; the textual condition of the Babylonian Talmud is in a more satisfactory state; the Babylonian Geonim at Sura and Pumbedita were in direct succession to the Babylonian Amoraim
, so that the Babylonian Talmud became 'our Talmud,' etc.
were Jewish biblical scholars active starting from the early-third-century compilation of the Mishnah until the last third of the fourth century in the land of Israel and until 500 in Babylonia.
The expression belongs to the Aramaic of the Early Amoraim
Though these periods correspond with (approximate) chronological periods (the period of the tannaim lasted from the beginning of the common era to about 200; that of the amoraim
from about 200-600, and that of the rishonim from about 1000-1400), the demarcations denote as much hermeneutic function as historical periodization.
The authorities of the Mishna are called by the term Tanna, meaning teacher by the authorities of the Gemara, themselves known as Amoraim
, or an Amora.
Immediately, the seven leaders and the great lords and priests and prophets and kings, and also all the Tannaim [teachers] and Amoraim
[interpreters] and all the sages of the Talmud, .
The terse interpretations, laws, and principles of the Mishnah were more fully explained in the "written law" or Gemara which was created by a second group of Rabbis known as Amoraim
from approximately 220 - 500 C.
67) The early Amoraim
then had no further reservations about increasingly placing the oral Torah over the written Torah in status.
of Palestine labored for about two centuries, completing their work about 400 CE, approximately one century earlier than their counterparts in Babylonia.
aiming to inform students of the stages of the gemarah 's development: tannaim, amoraim
, stam-rnim), and approachesof traditional rabbinic study (lomdut uderekh ha-urn mud vs.
had never seen the structure they were trying to describe.
170) The generations that followed the Tannaim were called Amoraim
("those who recount the law") because they worked to interpret and deliver the authoritative Mishnayot.
and that is the watershed between the Tannaic and the Amoraic periods, so named after the Tannaim (sages whose teachings appear in the Mishnah) and the Amoraim
(sages whose teachings appear in the Talmud but not in the Mishnah).
Similarly, we find that even though the Amoraim
did not have the right to disagree with Tannaim in halakhic matters, still we find that they offered alternative explanations to verses (Or ha-Hayyim, Gen.