were Jewish biblical scholars active starting from the early-third-century compilation of the Mishnah until the last third of the fourth century in the land of Israel and until 500 in Babylonia.
The expression belongs to the Aramaic of the Early Amoraim
(those who "say") derive legal principles and concepts from the earlier tannaitic sources (never, however, contesting the authority oft hose sources); indeed, the articulation of such principles almost always depends upon both the acknowledgement and incorporation of those earlier texts.
5) Tannaitic literature is too scanty to allow any conclusions at all, but it seems the Amoraim
could not dispense with eschatology.
Even though the Amoraim
living in the land of Israel longed for the Temple and enacted several laws and ordinances "in memory of the Temple" (zekher l'mikdash), it is noteworthy that the Palestinian sources do not include the kind of statement that we find in the Babylonian Talmud (for example in Betsah 5b): "The Temple may soon be rebuilt, and people would say, did we do so last year or not.
Although the current work is not designed primarily to be a study of talmudic interpretations of tannaitic traditions, Goldberg does pay careful attention to the approaches taken by the Amoraim
, and tries to uncover consistent positions with respect to their use of the Tosefta as a source of authoritative interpretation of the Mishnah.
was one of the great figures of the first generation of Amoraim
, the rabbinic sages who came after the redaction of the Mishnah by R.
The Talmud Yerushalmi--often referred to in English as the Palestinian Talmud (henceforth PT)--is a wide-ranging composition that includes a considerable portion of the literary output of the amoraim
, the Jewish sages in Palestine during the third and fourth centuries C.
This may indicate that the amoraim
, in particular the school of R.
The Talmuds are a later creation of sages called Amoraim
made extensive use of this device to indicate their indignation at immoral behavior.
It is important to stress that while this blessing is generally thought to be aimed exclusively at sectarians - and indeed, the later generations of Babylonian Amoraim
when discussing that blessing do so in that exclusive context,(12) as they would, since Rome did not impinge in any way upon Babylonian Jewry - yet an examination of the text of the blessing indicates that Rome was in fact the author's primary concern.