The substances selected from categories 3A, 3B, and 4 were evaluated by means of a bacterial reverse gene mutation test (further referred to as "Ames test
") according to OECD test guideline 471 (OECD, 1997), with specific test conditions based on the paper by Mortelmans and Zeiger (2000).
The antioxidant properties observed in the Ames test
against 4NQO-induced mutations were also verified with the determination of antioxidant properties using the DPPH method, depending on the concentration of LME or SME used.
Using the Ames test
, a compound is considered mutagenic if it reaches at least two-times the number of colonies of the spontaneous reversion.
Mini mutagenicity test: a miniaturized version of the Ames test
used in a prescreening assay for point mutagenesis assessment.
The same prepared extract of fresh feces and urine used for HPLC analysis was also assessed for mutagenicity by the Ames Test
using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 (Ames et al., 1973; Maron and Ames, 1983) to find out the mechanism of antimutagenicity.
The safety concern arises from the fact that ginger has been found to be teratogenic on the Ames test
. Ames testing assesses teratogenicity in bacteria, often by administering test compounds in extremely high concentrations; therefore, the results don't necessarily translate directly to humans, But such findings prompted Dr.
The safety concern arises from the fact that ginger is found to be teratogenic on the Ames test
. Ames testing assesses teratogenicity in bacteria, often using test compounds in extremely high concentrations; therefore, the results don't necessarily translate directly to humans.
The Ames test
has become the standard by which many substances are measured for mutagenacity and carcinogenicity.
Commonly found in feces, 7-OHIQ was identified during the 1980s as a direct-acting mutagen in the Ames test
, a bacterial assay used to screen for potential carciongens.
As an example, Lundy notes, the Tripartite agreement relative to testing biocompatibility of medical devices now includes the Ames test
for the mutagenicity effect, to verify whether a particular plastic material might change the shape of a cell or how it replicates.
To demonstrate the safety of chlorogenic acid, he ran multi-generation bacterial tests (the Ames Test
) with no ill effects.
The bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test
) is considered a reliable predictor of genotoxic potential (Schilter et al., 2014), and is the most common in vitro test to detect gene mutations (OECD, 1997).
A number of tests can be used; they include: Ames test
(bacterial reverse mutation assay), mammalian cell chromosomal aberration test, mammalian cell gene mutation test (MLA mouse lymphoma assay), and Micronucleus test.
Since our initial test revealed no pronounced toxicity on test strains at concentration as high as 5mg/plate (data not shown), we set this concentration as the highest dose and performed the Ames test
with its serial dilutions.
It includes practical approaches on how to perform the tests and to interpret the results and describes a stepwise testing strategy, starting with the Ames test
. In case of positive results, this should be followed by a mammalian cell assay and, in case of a still positive result in that assay, by in vivo genotoxicity tests.