lobbied for legislation to protect immigrants from unscrupulous landlords and tyrannical employers.
statehooders were ruthless Americanizers
, the PNP rejects with
Harold Frederic, Frank Norris, and the photographs of Jacob Riis, she establishes how nativists, Americanizers
, and pluralists imagined the immigrant woman.
When the bitter quarrel between Americanizers
and conservatives erupted during the last decade of the 19th century, the monks of Saint Vincent sided with those who resisted assimilation into American culture.
In the US, Americanization programs for men stressed civics (the moral, and republican, lessons of George Washington's life) and political responsibilities of citizenship, while those for women taught the skills of American domesticity --consumption, childrearing, cooking, and housekeeping -- suggesting that Americanizers
, much like Mussolini, expected national loyalties from women as mothers and wives more than as voters or politically active citizens.
, according to historian Edward George Hartmann, encouraged a barrage of "special classes, lectures, and mass meetings, where [immigrants] might be instructed in the language, the ideals, and outlook on life which had come to be accepted as the traditional American point of view.
Constitutionality, however, offered no obstacle for the Americanizers
During World War I, Americanizers
worried about dual allegiances and feared that Bellamy's pledge allowed cunning fifth-columnist immigrants to swear a secret loyalty to another country.
Historians have discerned three main positions in this renewed debate: the nativists, who refined the incipient xenophobia of the period into a full-blown biological racism that argued the genetic superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race (see Higham, chapter six); the Americanizers
, whose theories of cultural/environmental racism combated nativist notions that the immigrants were unassimilable; and the cultural pluralists, who argued for immigration, and against Americanization projects, on the grounds that the differences of the immigrants (whether biological or cultural) were precisely what American culture needed, and the American people should welcome.
While scientists combated racial science, proponents of Jewish culture took on the offspring of race thinking--the nativism of the KKK, 100% Americanizers
, and proponents of the melting pot.