government halted nearly all immigration to America, and the need for a national "Americanizer
Local actors and conditions also shaped the resolution of the rebellion--a resolution negotiated by the colonizers and colonial subjects at a moment when Americanization was increasingly subject to attack and when Puerto Ricans could draw on three decades of experience with Americanizers
. This shows us that imperial power, though strong, did have limits--limits set on the metropole's plans and methods by those in the colony.
The strategic decisions that state-level Americanizers
made during the World War One and the Red Scare facilitated a shift in emphasis from social welfare to immigration restriction.
McKevitt argues that in these labors the Jesuits proved to be neither "Romanizers [nor] Americanizers
." Instead, he argues, "it is more useful to view them as intermediaries between multiple cultures" (241), the "brokers of culture" of the book's title.
Fine, The City, the Immigrant and American Fiction, 1880-1920 (Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1977), especially chapter 2, "Reformers, Americanizers
, and Cosmopolitans: The Case for the Immigrant." Fine indicates that the settlement house movement encouraged immigrants to retain what was best in their backgrounds and adopt what was best in the native tradition (26).
Where are the Americanizers
? Where are the boosters and boomers?
Yet immigrant groups have also taken positive steps to meet the Americanizers
statehooders were ruthless Americanizers
, the PNP rejects with
" attacked German immigrants and other
Harold Frederic, Frank Norris, and the photographs of Jacob Riis, she establishes how nativists, Americanizers
, and pluralists imagined the immigrant woman.
When the bitter quarrel between Americanizers
and conservatives erupted during the last decade of the 19th century, the monks of Saint Vincent sided with those who resisted assimilation into American culture.
In the US, Americanization programs for men stressed civics (the moral, and republican, lessons of George Washington's life) and political responsibilities of citizenship, while those for women taught the skills of American domesticity --consumption, childrearing, cooking, and housekeeping -- suggesting that Americanizers
, much like Mussolini, expected national loyalties from women as mothers and wives more than as voters or politically active citizens.
, according to historian Edward George Hartmann, encouraged a barrage of "special classes, lectures, and mass meetings, where [immigrants] might be instructed in the language, the ideals, and outlook on life which had come to be accepted as the traditional American point of view." They made naturalization central to their efforts, since it would help transform foreign nationals into patriotic Americans.
Constitutionality, however, offered no obstacle for the Americanizers
. Religious practice became one of the most controversial issues between Texans and German Texans.
Sanchez (1993) writes, "Americanizers
held Mexican women responsible for family planning ...