Willow (Salix spp.), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), and saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia
), together termed "moose shrubs", made up 83% of browse events recorded, with willow alone comprising 52% of browse events.
Sixty-four of these were recorded by one study only, but of these some (e.g., Amelanchier alnifolia
, Bromus ciliatus, and Potentilla fruticosa) are ecotone species and may not have been consistently noted.
Berberis aquifolium Amelanchier alnifolia
Berberis nervosa Symphoricarpos spp.
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) was used as a second berry type because the berries are larger (0.6 g/berry, fresh mass), preferred by bears (Martinka 1976, Eagle and Pelton 1983, Mace and Jonkel 1986), and often occur in clusters of 3-5 berries.
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) contains more total dietary fiber than the Vaccinium berries; thus its dry matter digestibility is considerably lower at 47.1%.
For example, Wikeem and Pitt (1992) studied the seasonal diets of a Bighorn Sheep population at Skaha Lake, 12 km north of Vaseux Lake, and did not note the consumption of berries; although that population seasonally consumed the leaves of shrubs with berries such as Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia
) and Wax Currant (Ribes cereum), albeit in trace amounts.
Cloreto de litio e o emetico mais usado em estudos de aversao condicionada a plantas toxicas em animais e tem sido eficiente na inducao de aversao para o consumo de Delphinium barbeyi em vacas (OLSEN et al., 1989), Cercocarpus montanus e Amelanchier alnifolia
em ovinos (BURRITT & PROVENZA, 1990) e Amorimia rigida em caprinos (BARBOSA et al., 2008) e ovinos (PACIFICO DA SILVA & SOTO-BLANCO, 2010).
To answer this question we focused on three fruit species that cumulatively comprise a significant proportion of bear diets (Grenfell and Brody, 1983; Raine and Kansas, 1990; Richardson, 1991) prior to torpor in the Central Rocky Mountains: russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.), and Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia
menziesii 7b Garry oak Quercus garryana 8 arbutus Arbutus menziesii 8 western flowering dogwood Cornus nuttallii 8 Monkey-puzzle Araucaria araucana Zone hardiness of some indicator shrubs 0 northern Labrador-tea Ledum decumbens 1 Saskatoon serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia
1 hedge cotoneaster Cotoneaster lucidus 1 silver buffalo-berry Shepherdia argentea la Labrador-tea Ledum groenlandicum 2 Siberian pea-tree Caragana arborescens 2 Siberian dogwood Cornus alba `Sibirica' 2 European cotoneaster Cotoneaster integerrima 2 silverberry Elaeagnus commutata 2b common juniper Juniperus communis var.
In Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia
), population-by-year interaction (indicating population variation for plasticity) accounted for almost 20% of the variation in germination among 27 populations tested in 3 yr (Acharya et al.
4.3 [+ or -] 0.2 SEDGE--PERENNIAL Carex geyeri 9.3 [+ or -] 1.5 6.8 [+ or -] 1.7 Carex hoodii 2.6 [+ or -] 0.5 0.3 [+ or -] 0.0 Carex pachystachya Carex petasata 1.5 [+ or -] 0.0 SHRUB--PERENNIAL Amelanchier alnifolia
5.0 [+ or -] 2.5 4.5 [+ or -] 0.0 Artemisia spp.