Activation of polyaxonal wide-field amacrine cells
(ACs) by global jitter motion suppresses firing of specific GCs, such as the local motion detector (fast OFF GC in salamander, ON brisk transient GC, and ON-OFF direction selective GC in rabbit; (19) W3B GC in mouse (20)).
On the basis of laminar position and morphology, these cells could be identified as horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cells
Lateral elements in the IPL, in particular amacrine cells
, can modulate the ON-bipolar cell response and the ERG b-wave [11, 17, 19, 36, 37].
Thus, for example, the neuronal interconnections of Figure 1(a) are biologically plausible in the human retina and are given by ganglion and amacrine cells
, whereas those proposed in Figures 1(b), 1(c) and 1(d) could be found in cortical areas .
In the retina, Bves was expressed near RPE barrier and around the inner plexiform layer (Figure 2(k)), which is composed of the amacrine cells
and the ganglion cells.
NGF is produced and used in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs), Bipolar and other retinal cell types (horizontal and amacrine cells
, MUller glia) .
Glutamate, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, taurine, and glycine are normal neurotransmitter or neuromodulatory agents for photoreceptors and other retinal neurons, such as horizontal and amacrine cells
. Muller cells, the main glial cell of the retina, also secrete neurotransmitters and express a wide variety of neurotransmitter receptors, reflecting their participation in the physiological signaling between neurons and glial cells .
PD is associated with not only the death of pigmented dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, but also a loss of neurons in other areas, such as the dopaminergic amacrine cells
, retinal ganglion cells, and cells higher visual areas (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus, cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert, and visual cortex) .
Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells
and optic nerve myelination to prenatal endotoxin exposure.
Close relationships have been observed between 5-HT and GABA in vertebrates, such as the rabbit (Osborne & Beaton 1986) and the cat (Wassle & Chun 1988), with double-labeling studies demonstrating the coexistence of these 2 neurotransmitters in amacrine cells
of the retina.
Retinogenesis proceeds in two distinct yet overlapping histogenetic periods, characterized by the development of early-born cells (ganglion, horizontal, cone, and amacrine cells
) mostly during embryogenesis and late-born cells [rods, bipolar cells (BCs), and MGCs] during early postnatal development (Livesey and Cepko 2001; Martins and Pearson 2008; Young 1985b).
However, all those studies had failed to detect any regenerated inner retina nerve cells, except when the Muller glia cells were genetically modified with genes that specifically promote the formation of amacrine cells
, which act as intermediaries in transmitting nerve signals.
In the normal retina (Figure 6(a)), anti-GABA antibody labels the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the amacrine cells
located on the inner lamina of the INL, and the horizontal cells located on the outer lamina of the INL.
Differential properties of two gap junctional pathways made by All amacrine cells
. Nature 377: 734-737.