Although this negative criticism has been very influential, leading almost to a consensus that no Altaic language
family exists, supporters of the Ramstedt-Poppe theory have by no means disappeared.
The choice of features might be adequate, given that 37 features occur in at least one Altaic language
and 21 occur in all of them.
In contrast to this picture, in the modern theory the Uralic languages are held to be completely unrelated to the Altaic languages
. This is because at some point in the development of the paradigm (between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century), the Uralic languages came to be split off from the languages left behind in the Altaic family, although no original work to substantiate this assumed splitting-off can be found (Georg, Michalove, Manaster Ramer, Sidwell 1998).
This becomes apparent when we compare Mongolian to other Altaic languages
. (4) For example, Mongolian ni[??]a-/na[??]a- "adhere" is cognate to Old Turkic yap- "id." Mongolian toyig (< *togig) "kneecap" is related to Old Turkic tobiq "id." Let us examine the following Turkic forms:
Among their topics are the role of verbal morphology in established genealogical relations among languages, identifying the language of an unintelligible Scandinavian runic inscription, inclusive and exclusive in Altaic languages
, gerunds in the Old Turkic and Mongol versions of "The Hungry Tigress," and enclitic zero verbs in some Eurasian languages.
Whether just the Altaic languages
are genetically related or are a "family" formed by prolonged contact and exchange is also in dispute.
1P 2P 3P Saamic + Mordvin + Mari + Komi + Udmurt + + Hungarian + + Selkup + + In Saamic there was possibly a genuine *t instead of *k; in Mari, Komi and Udmurt k occurs only in negative auxiliary verbs and these negative auxiliary verbs may descend from Altaic languages
; in Selkup there was possibly a genuine *[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] instead of *k.
The retention of TAM marking in a modified form is more common, as attested in many Altaic languages
that do not consistently differentiate between participles and nominalizations.
spread as far as Finland and later to Hungary.
UZBEK: A member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic languages
spoken by 15 million people.
Since the Altaic languages
, such as Turkish, work the same way, the following example from the Turkish language should make it more clear.
Mongolian exhibits differential case markings, and Guntsetseg investigates the pattern of this marking in Mongolian in order to contribute to the study of case marking and case differentiation in general and particularly in Altaic languages
. She covers the Mongolian language, noun phrases in Mongolian, differential object marking in Mongolian, experimental studies on differential object marking, differential subject marking, and experimental studies on differential subject marking.
In this section we will examine the concept of speech as presented in the tree of Altaic languages
and other trees.
Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages
. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971.
It has also been shown to hold for other harmony types such as rounding harmony in Khalkha Mongolian (Goldsmith 1985) and Altaic languages
more generally (Walker 2001), as well as in Tiv, a Niger-Congo language (Pulley-blank 1988).