The inability to decode the alphabetic writing system
will further impact students' reading comprehension and fluency.
The defining characteristic of an alphabetic writing system
is that letters of the written code represent sounds of the spoken code.
The information of interest here describes the bottlenecks associated with the alphabetic writing systems
including the fully transparent orthography of the Finnish language, the slightly less transparent Dutch writing and the non-alphabetic Chinese where the requirements of the initial learning (of Pinyin) is close to that needed for that of the other two orthographies but those of the later stages of learning (i.
Research on young learners from a variety of languages that use alphabetic writing systems
indicate that (l) PA is a critical component of alphabetic reading, (2) learners with PA deficits often experience difficulty in learning to read, and (3) explicit PA instruction, or training, leads to gains in decoding and spelling (Adams, 1990; Ball & Blachman.
An introductory chapter is devoted to the general problems of "alphabetology," especially to the invention and spread of alphabetic writing systems