However, only when one learns an alphabetic writing system
can we observe the emergence of phonemic awareness, the highest level of phonological awareness, which, in turn, is an essential skill for learning to read in an alphabetic writing system
(Defior & Serrano, 2011b; Scliar-Cabral, 2002).
On the other hand, if the child is taught exclusively by the look-say method, he is unlikely to be able to master reading our alphabetic writing system
and is very likely to become functionally illiterate.
The inability to decode the alphabetic writing system
will further impact students' reading comprehension and fluency.
The defining characteristic of an alphabetic writing system
is that letters of the written code represent sounds of the spoken code.
The information of interest here describes the bottlenecks associated with the alphabetic writing systems
including the fully transparent orthography of the Finnish language, the slightly less transparent Dutch writing and the non-alphabetic Chinese where the requirements of the initial learning (of Pinyin) is close to that needed for that of the other two orthographies but those of the later stages of learning (i.