Neuropeptide Y inhibits spontaneous alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
(alpha-MSH)release via a Y(5) receptor and suppresses thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced alpha-MSH secretion via a Y(1) receptor in frog melanotrope cells.
Regulation of adipose tissue leptin secretion by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
and agouti-related protein: further evidence of an interaction between leptin and the melanocortin signalling system.
Abbreviation Ac-P1 to Ac-P4: N-Acetyl-pentapeptides [IC.sub.50]: Half maximal inhibitory concentration HQ: Dihydroxybenzene Phe: Phenylalanine AC: Acetyl group S: Serine R: Arginine F: Phenylalanine K: Lysine L-DOPA: L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide [alpha]-MSH: Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
PBS: Phosphate buffer solution TIS: Triisopropylsilane TFA: Trifluoroacetic acid Fmoc: 9-Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl- (Fmoc-) protected amino acids HBTU: 2-(1H-Benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate HOBt: 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole SPPS: Solid phase peptide synthesis DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium PS: Proline-serine VS: Valine-serine MCR-1: Melanocortin 1 receptor.
Bohm, "Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
and related tripeptides: biochemistry, antiinflammatory and protective effects in vitro and in vivo, and future perspectives for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases," Endocrine Reviews, vol.
Afamelanotide, a first-in-class investigational chemical analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
, is a melanocortin-1 agonist that activates melanocytes and increases melanin levels in the skin.
It is then carried by the blood to the hypothalamus where it inhibits the actions of several appetite-stimulant substances (e.g., neuropeptide Y, anandamide) and promotes the synthesis of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
, which is an appetite suppressant.
Induction of regulatory T cells by the immunomodulating cytokines alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
and transforming growth factor-beta2.
A synthetic octapeptide, CZEN 002 was developed from more than 25 years of original research in the US, Europe and Asia on peptide molecules derived from alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone