About half of the kids in the trial were on alpha-agonists
, antipsychotics, or other medications.
For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, methylphenidate has been shown to be effective, and atomoxetine and alpha-agonists
might be beneficial.
Only 2% of those without a sleep diagnosis took alpha-agonists
, but 13% took melatonin and 15% took any medication.
Over-the-counter antihistamines are the most commonly utilized medications in all age groups and alpha-agonists
are the most frequently prescribed sleep medications.
Key classes of mechanism of action include acetylcholine inhibitors, 3-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, TRPV1 antagonists, alpha-agonists
, cell therapies, desmopressin formulations, EP 1 receptor antagonists, opioid receptor agonists, vanilloid receptor agonists, delta receptor agonists and NK1 antagonists.