Born in the 12th century in Seville, Ibn Zuhr conducted original research in therapeutics, tumours, and abscesses while serving as a physician to both the Almoravid
and Ahmohad courts.
In the event, the ta'ifa of Seville was conquered by the Almoravids
in 484/1091 and the court of al-Mu'tamid disappeared.
In some respects, one can see both sides of this argument, because, as Payne indicates, the eleventh and twelfth centuries' Almoravids
and Almohads were fanatical Islamic forces who perpetrated violent acts against nonbelievers.
And whether the Moroccans want to connect the event to the city of Marrakesh, the capital of Almoravids
and Almohads; or whether the Algerians want to cling to that the idea was born in Zeralda, what is certain is that the detente in the relationships of the two countries was behind the rebirth of that momentum that had nearly turned into an illusion.
rejected the lavish decoration that had dominated the architectural style of their predecessors the Umayyad, and built on a practical rather than a monumental scale - piety prevented them from erecting elegant or magnificent buildings.
Upon taking over Andalusia, the Almoravids
enshrined their illiberal interpretation of Islam as the moral compass of society.
References to the Almoravids
abound in AQIM messaging, mostly through noms de guerre and the names of AQIM's Saharan battalions.
In February 1204, Innocent had already argued to Peter that while he delighted in the king's enthusiasm to attack those who 'wished to wipe the memory of the name of Christian from the earth', the other Christian kings of the Peninsula were still opposed to one another and that made an attack against the king of Morocco, now doubly powerful after the taking of Majorca from the Almoravids
, inadvisable (52), By August 1204 and with an improvement at least in relations between Leon and Castile, the pope was more enthusiastic about the projected campaign to be undertaken with the help of Genoa or Pisa, but he still advised Peter to travel to Rome first and Genoa afterwards, and appeared more interested in the marriage of his ward Frederick than anything else (53).
Under Ibn Abi 'Amir (978-1002), cultural pluralism took a heavy hit; as throngs of Berber mercenaries poured into Spain to fight the Christians, followed by the armies of the Almoravids
(1086) and then the Almohads (1195), life for the Jews got progressively worse.
were a Berber dynasty that emerged from the western Sahara desert in the middle 11th century to rule practically all of the territory from the Senegal River in West Africa to the Ebro River in Spain, explains Messier (emeritus history, Middle Tennessee State U.
After a few brief years of residence in Granada, Halevi, probably impelled by the invasion of the Almoravids
from Morocco, began a period of wandering, eventually returning to Christian Spain and settling in Toledo.
The puritanical Almoravids
required Jews to pay off Muslim war debts to avoid forced conversion to Islam; In Aragon in 1109, Jews were robbed and murdered by rioting Muslims.
For background on North Africa and French colonialism globally, see Julia Clancy-Smith, co-editor and introduction, Domesticating the Empire: Gender, Race, & Family Life in the Dutch and French Empires, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998); editor and introduction, North Africa, Islam, and the Mediterranean World from the Almoravids
to the Algerian War (London: Frank Cass Publications, 2001); and co-editor and introduction, French Historical Studies 27, 3(summer 2004): 497-505, special issue "Writing French Colonial Histories.
See Manuel Casamar Perez (1992), 'The Almoravids
and Almohads: an Introduction', in the exhibition catalogue Al-Andalus: The Art of Islamic Spain, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 75-83, p.
Built by the Almoravids
in the twelfth century, the Giralda originally served as the minaret of that city's great mosque.