This possibility of forming larger carbon rich structures by fusing molecules with atom manipulation opens the way to create more sophisticated carbon-rich molecules and new carbon allotropes
. Eventually, custom-made molecular structures might be used as elements for molecular electronics, based on single electron transfer.
In our group, the chemical modification of nanometric fillers, both [sp.sup.2] carbon allotropes
, and inorganic oxides and hydroxides, has been performed.
In Section 3, we will provide an overview of TE materials primarily based on single-material carbon allotropes
. In Section 4, we will review TE materials combining one or more carbon allotropes
with other materials like polymer into a composite.
Shenoy, "Defective graphene and graphene allotropes
as high-capacity anode materials for Mg ion batteries," ACS Energy Letters, vol.
Caption: Figure 1: Different allotropes
of carbon nanostructure: (a) OD Fullerenes; (b) 1D Carbon Nanotubes; (c) 2D Graphene; (d) 3D Graphite.
The structures of four types of graphyne allotropes
, as well as that of graphene, are depicted in Figure 1.
In respect to the first approach, carbon allotropes
, including carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes, have probably gained the greatest interest.
Owing to their outstanding mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, the family of carbon allotropes
including carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets and fullerenes are becoming increasingly important in the emerging field of nanoscience and nanotechnology [1-2].
So far, there are cheaper alternative materials that can rival with Pt in terms of electrocatalytic performance such as nitrides , sulfides , carbides , and carbon allotropes
. Various types of carbons that can function well as CE catalysts include graphites, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, reduced graphene oxides, activated carbons, carbon blacks, and biomass-derived charcoals (biochars) [6-13].
In this process, using different catalysts and different reaction conditions generates different carbon species such as, amorphous and graphitic carbon, carbon nanotubes, nanofibres and carbon allotropes
as graphene structures .
White and her co-workers addressed this question with an experimental thermodynamic analysis of two key allotropes
of boron and published their findings in Angewandte Chemie at the beginning of the year.
Carbon nanocones are conical structures which are allotropes
of carbon having at least one dimension of the order one micrometer or smaller.
Among different forms of carbon, graphene is one of the widely studied allotropes
. Graphene is a monolayer of graphite, which has a wide spectrum of applications.
Elemental selenium lias been known to exist in various allotropic forms, as res amorphous form, black vitreous form, three [[alpha], [beta], [gamma]) of red crystalline monoclinic forms and grey/ black crystalline hexagonal [also referred to as trigonal] form which is also the most stable form, and some more allotropes
are being discovered [51-59].
The first section provides several chapters on unusual carbon allotropes
and their potentialities.