The studies were conducted in the farm of Rodina firm in the Akmolinsk
region under climatic conditions typical for North Kazakhstan.
Indeed, there are many opportunities to learn about the difficult legacy of Soviet oppression at historical gulag sites around Astana, including ALZHIR, the Akmolinsk
Camp for Wives of Traitors to the Motherland.
Astana is the last name of a town (Akmolinsk
, Tselinograd, Akmola, Astana) that has been developed since the 1830's, but that has been a village for more than 120 years: indeed the village became a town in the fifties, when Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union at the time, decided to transform it into the Virgin Lands' capital.
Two years later the settlement was given the name of Akmolinsk
, and in 1862 acquired the status of a town.
To stake Kazakhstan's claim to these northern territories, the first Kazakh president Nazarbaev moved in 1998 his country's capital from the southern city of Almaty northward to the Russian city of Akmolinsk
in the forbidding steppe of Virgin Lands, and renamed the city Astana (which literally means the Capital in the Kazakh language).
Many species and subspecies, especially those found in central Asia are separated only by small morphological differences and some taxa share the same type locality, e.g., three taxa from Akmolinsk
, three subspecies of heptapotamicus from Alatau-Almaty (Table 1).
For instance, the Kirghiz regions of Semipalatinsk and Akmolinsk
had 2,853 Orthodox congregants.
By the 1830s they had conquered Ural'sk and Turgay and parts of Akmolinsk
. Before 1878, they had encroached as far south as Turkestan, acquiring Samarkand, Bukhara and Semirech'ye.
For example, Akmola researchers have been measuring the humus content on the grain fields of the large "Oktyabr" state farm in the Akmolinsk
region since 1968.