Europe's agricultural protectionism
also harms developing countries, which are unable to sell their agricultural products -- in many cases, the only goods they can export -- in European markets.
In this article, we explore an institutional foundation of agricultural protectionism
in Japan, a country long recognized as resisting international pressures to open up its rice market.
But the GATT, at American insistence to protect the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act, tolerated the agricultural protectionism
practised in the northern hemisphere; the measurable gains from GATT negotiations in increased access for New Zealand were very small.
The WTO's Doha round of trade negotiations foundered on agricultural protectionism
(Joseph Stiglitz, Guardian.co.uk, 10 Aug.
was a very sensitive topic, but the modelling work done within the OECD under Bruce's direction persuasively showed the extent to which a multilateral reduction in support for agriculture would have a smaller impact on European farmers than a unilateral cut by the European Economic Community.
Our complaint is closely linked to agricultural protectionism
, a contentious issue in both regional and multilateral trade negotiations.
He said: "Europe should indicate that when it comes to review its budget and its agricultural policies the essential element of both will be a radical reform of the Common Agricultural Policy and a timetable to end all forms of agricultural protectionism
is not news, but even by the generous standards of American farm subsidies, cotton handouts are something special.
The measure, a cornerstone of the old European agricultural protectionism
, goes against some of the EU's commitments towards trade liberalisation at the World Trade Organisation - the EU, for instance, has committed to phasing out export refunds as part of the Doha Development Agenda.
He said: "None of us are fully open about the effects of agricultural protectionism
Craig describes himself as a 'free marketeer', and at a public meeting in London last year he didn't mince his words about the need for the European Union and the USA to end their agricultural protectionism
. 'The protectionist lobbies are self-serving,' he said, 'Europe is two-faced: the major donor of development aid but also the originator of the most restrictive tariff barriers.'