The effects of antagonist static (Miranda et al., 2015) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) (Paz et al., 2012) stretching (pectoralis major muscle) on agonist muscle
activity (latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii) were investigated.
For each exercise and agonist muscle
group, femoral strains were calculated using the peak isometric force of the hip-spanning muscles for 14 intermediate joint angles uniformly distributed within a physiological range: hip abduction angle ranged between -39[degrees] and 0[degrees], the hip flexion angle ranged between -20[degrees] and 30[degrees], and knee flexion angles ranged between 0[degrees] and 90[degrees] (Table 2).
Flexibility training programs are not primarily focused on maximally increasing a participant's muscular strength; however, in accordance with Sherrington's Law, there should be an increase in muscular strength of the agonist muscle
in order for there to be an increase in the length of the antagonist muscle.
For example, it is reasonable to suggest that for a given joint motion, agonist muscles
may be required to exert higher levels of force and stiffness while antagonist muscles simultaneously can allow faster joint movement through a higher stretch (and less stiffness) and less force production.
When trying to accelerate sub-maximal weights, manifested power-rates remain constant with increasing speeds because: (1) they are partly counteracted and balanced by forces developed by contractions of antagonist muscles; and/or (2) antagonist muscles do not immediately contract (and keep observed power levels constant), but the contractile power-rates of agonist muscles
is held in check when they are employed to forcibly accelerate sub-maximal weight loads.
Nevertheless, [??][O.sub.2] during HTC increased more than during ULC because HTS could enhance muscle activity sufficiently by using electrically stimulated eccentric antagonist muscle contractions as a resistance to voluntary agonist muscle
contractions (as a substitute for an external braking force).
The aim of this optimization problem is to maximize the activity of an agonist muscle
and minimize the activity of other muscles.
Muscle exercise method by electrical stimulating antagonist muscle- muscle force measurement by surface electrical stimulation as a resistance of agonist muscle
. Kyushu Yamaguchi Sports Gakkishi.
The agonist muscle
contracts for the desired movement.
One method is the agonist-antagonist paired set (PS) that consists of paired sets between exercises for an agonist muscle
group followed an exercise for the antagonist muscle group with or without limited rest interval length (16).
Briefly, in the MVC task, the maximum value of EMG (EMGmax) in each agonist muscle
was determined over a 500 ms window centered on the time at which peak torque was attained.
Thus, the large number of muscle injuries in football, occurring particularly to the posterior musculature of the thigh, is due precisely to a large difference in tonus and strength of these groups, resulted from the negligence in training them, although the agonist muscle
(quadriceps crural) is by far the most demanded in football (Dragan, 1994).
Therefore, an increase in the agonist muscle
activity is required in order to achieve force outputs equivalent to those of the pre-fatigue trials.
When the vibratory stimulus is applied to an agonist muscle
it causes reciprocal inhibition of the antagonist motoneurons (Bishop, 1974); but when vibration is applied simultaneously to the agonist and antagonist muscles, the facilitatory effect of each muscle group is inhibited (Hagbarth, 1967).
Resting your hands or body on the floor terminates or diminishes the agonist muscle