In children, pernio can be associated with the presence of cryoglobulins, cold agglutinins
, anorexia nervosa, and genetic interferonopathy; it may precede the diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and may occur as a presenting sign of a blast crisis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
In the study by Swiecicki et al., (7) in which 89 adult patients who were diagnosed as having cold agglutinin
disease were evaluated retrospectively, it was reported that more than 90% of the patients had a positive Coombs test with anti-C3.
The category of cold hemolysins includes 2 distinct disease entities: cold agglutinin
syndrome and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, either of which should demonstrate a DAT positive only with C3 antisera.
Vojdani, "Immune reactivities to peanut proteins, agglutinins
, and oleosins," Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol.
from Abrus precatorius has been reported as an inductor of Th1 immune response through splenocyte activation and induction of IL2, IFN[gamma], and TNF[alpha][beta] cytokine production.
(22.) Vaishnavi, C., Kumar, S., Investigation for background prevalence of Brucella agglutinins
among blood donors.
Oyster pallial cavity fluid contains hemocytes as well as mucus and agglutinins
derived from soft tissues such as the mantle, which have been shown to sequester these heavy metals.
This process is an immune reaction caused by antibodies called agglutinins
It demonstrates agglutinins
to Proteus vulgaris strain OX 19, OX 2 and OX K.
In milk containing Brucella agglutinins
, the bacteria were agglutinated and raised with the cream forming a blue cream line, having the skin milk-white in samples, in which there were no agglutinins
His tests including full blood count, thyroid function tests, antinuclear antibody, cryoglobulin, cryofibrinogen, cold agglutinins
, antiphospholipid antibodies and serum protein electrophoresis, which were performed to determine the etiology, were within normal ranges.
Only 6.7% of serum samples from Gurgaon (Haryana), 66.3% of samples from Nagaland, and 71.8% of samples from Uttar Pradesh were positive for Bordetella bronchiseptica agglutinins
This should be contrasted with cold agglutinins
which cause agglutination of RBCs.
Blood can form a gel when there are high concentrations of proteins, such as IgM and/or IgG antibodies, that precipitate at low temperatures (cryoglobulins) or agglutinate red blood cells (cold agglutinins
) (1, 2).