This literature reveals a problematic process for ethnic minorities; particularly Blacks who face difficulties in securing the kind of support they need from key agents of socialization
. This study sought to examine how race and gender might affect how a student secures the support needed to facilitate their doctoral experience.
To determine which agents of socialization
are the most influential, the second questionnaire was an Interpersonal Questionnaire (IQ), self-created, with 32 items: 8 to evaluate the family as a socializing agent, 8 for school, 8 for the media and 8 to assess whether male or female classmates also perform the role of socialization agents.
Questions also addressed other key agents of socialization
, specifically friends and teachers, including the messages about education received from these agents and the importance of these agents in influencing students' views about their education.
The first section focuses on the role of family, church, and school as early agents of socialization
. Flynn's account shows that early family socialization was pivotal for each of these women.
Sources of these stereotypes are mostly agents of socialization
which include family, school, religion, peer group and mass media.
The primary responsibility of the primary agents of socialization
was required to be fulfilled in accordance with the standard rules of any society.
THE EDITORS ARGUE THAT OFFICIAL disdain toward religion by an omnicompetent government is harming religion and creating "state-ordained secularism." They also claim, "The primary agents of socialization
in this culture--the media, the schools, social service agencies--are willfully secular in orientation" and, therefore, "religion seems to have been excluded from the full benefits of public life." As a citizen of this same culture, I do not see this hostility.
In her book Telling Tales, Dianne Johnson points out that generally children's books are used "as agents of socialization
, politicization, and of formal education" (1).
While family and home background are often viewed as the primary agents of socialization
, schools are seen as a significant secondary agent, along mass media exposure (Atkin, 1981; Bronstein, 1993), the political context of the times (Niemi, 1974) and the role of the individual as an independent factor in the process (Chaffee, Pan and McLeod, 1995; Haste and Torney-Purta, 1992; Jennings and Niemi, 1974; Knutson, 1974; Niemi, 1974).