The terms "Black English" and "African-American English" have often been equated, in the literature on African-American speech, with African-American Vernacular English, a nonstandard variety (1) of African-American English characterized by grammatical, lexical and phonological features such as the invariant be, words and phrases such as word!
Nevertheless, sociolects include differing varieties, variations and registers which may be used by different speakers, or by the same speaker in different situations (DeBose 1992: 166; Spears 1988: 9899; Garner & Rubin 1986: 33; Hoover 1978: 69), and African-American Vernacular English is only one variety of African-American English.
Nevertheless, the use of distinctively African American pragmatic features characterizes both African-American Vernacular English and Standard African American English, and, accordingly, a complete description of Standard African-American English must include a description of these features.
Notably, after introducing her subject, she launches her commentary with a paragraph which both opens and closes with codeswitches into African-American Vernacular English:
developed the Academic English Mastery Program 11 years ago to address the needs of students who speak African-American Vernacular English, Mexican-American "Chicano" English, "Hawaiian Pidgin" English and Native American English.
Several years ago, at a conference for speech and language pathologists, a professor gave the attendees a standardized test that had been translated into African-American Vernacular English. "I was frustrated and angry at first, then I felt cheated," Lawson says.
Whether or not these hybrid speech genres are a species of African-American Vernacular English
(AAVE) or something like Bombay Bazaar Hindi-English (BBHE), whether the grammatical structure of "Ain't nobody sing like Chaka Khan" comes from the Niger-Congo Basin, or the rhetorical particularity of "Miss Pushpa is smiling and smiling/ even for no reason" can be traced back to Hindi speech patterns common to Bombay's Bhindi Bazaar, the world of these utterances cannot be reduced to the description of speech as an "object" of linguistic study or a functionalist form of verbal communication without doing violence to the living tongue.