Expression and function of the ion channel TRPA1 in vagal afferent nerves
innervating mouse lungs.
The peripheral pathway of GI visceral pain mainly refers to the primary sensory neuron stage of signal transmission through primary afferent nerve
fibers to the spinal DRG after noxious stimulation acting on the receptors in the GI mucosa.
Blockade of afferent nerves
results in bladder analgesia, while lack of transmission in efferent fibers causes a detrusor blockade that outlasts motor blockade by as much as several hours.
The Roman numerals refer to the afferent nerves
' diameters, the size of which influences conduction velocity, the level of threshold firing, and the adaptive properties (how quickly or slowly the nerves respond to deformation resulting in reflex neuromuscular responses).
These subdivisions lead to a more elaborate classification scheme--one that includes four types of afferent nerves
and two types of efferent nerves.
Additionally, the regrown tips of the beak do not always contain afferent nerves
or sensory corpuscles (Gentle et al., 1997), therefore the loss of sensory feedback may be long-term and may explain long-term evidence of guarding behaviour.
Massive vascular effects on efferent nerves can be expected when it is taken into account that the abnormal sensorial and vegetative input coming from the incisive papilla trauma can excite potent vasodilator-mediated afferent nerves
(Ertsey et al.).
They cover development and plasticity, vagal sensory ganglion neurons, vagal sensory nerve terminals, connections in the central nervous system, organ-specific afferent nerves
, and vagal reflexes and sensation.
Consequently, we previously proposed a mechanism of increased sensitivity of the afferent nerves
in patients with airway symptoms induced by scents and chemicals and suggested using the term "sensory hyperreactivity" (SHR; Millqvist et al.
Critics have argued that the symptomatic improvement that most patients report following the Stretta procedure is simply due to destruction of afferent nerves
in the lower esophageal mucosa, with the result that continued reflux becomes asymptomatic.
The autonomic efferent and afferent nerves
keep a continuous degree of activity, which is referred to as tone.
Type I and II both consist of afferent nerves
that carry impulses toward the central nervous system.