Kidney sections from control and hyperuricemic rats were stained with a-smooth muscle actin (aSMA), a marker for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to evaluate vascular hypertrophy at the levels of afferent arterioles and arcuate arteries.
Quantitative analysis using aSMA staining demonstrated that tempol also ameliorated the thickening of the afferent arterioles (Figure 7(b)).
This is secondary to renal vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
. The deoxycholate moiety is nephrotoxic and accounts for the differential renal toxicity of Amphotericin B deoxycholate as compared with lipid compounds.
Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole
and exits via the efferent arteriole.
The vasodilatory prostaglandins act primarily on the afferent arterioles, counteracting the vasoconstrictive effects of angiotensin II mid SNS stimulation, and maintaining RBF despite systemic arteriolar vasoconstriction.
Renin release is regulated by two intrarenal mechanisms, the afferent arteriole baroreceptors and the macula densa cells, and one extra-renal mechanism, the SNS.
Uncomplicated vascular immune complex deposits consist of a deposition of immunoglobulins and complement primarily in afferent arterioles
. The involved vessels show no evidence of injury and appear normal by light microscopy or contain subendothelial collections of eosinophilic material. The lupus microangiopathy is reported in 6% to 17% of renal biopsies and in 27% of autopsies on lupus patients.[21,23-27] Like uncomplicated deposits, this microangiopathy primarily involves afferent arterioles
, and large amounts of immunoglobulin and complement are found in arteriolar walls by immunofluorescence microscopy.
The virtual [Er.sub.2][O.sub.3] vascular "cast" (Figures 5(a) and 5(b)) showed complete perfusion from the abdominal aorta (i.e., the main feeding vessel) down to the 6th and 7th arterial branches (i.e., glomeruli afferent arterioles
A histopathological analysis reveals features of arteriolopathy (hyalinization of nephron afferent arterioles
), band-like interstitial fibrosis, and ischaemic atrophy of the renal tubules.