For example, two of the six individual studies differentiated stillbirth results between parities (Gordon et al., 2013; Waldenstrom et al., 2015) and showed that multiparity can be protective against stillbirth at advanced maternal age
. BMI was accounted for in only three of the six studies (Arnold et al., 2012; Mutz-Dehbalaie et al., 2014; Waldenstrom et al., 2015), despite high BMI complicating care and increasing risk of stillbirth (Flenady et al., 2011).
Pregnancy outcome at extremely advanced maternal age
. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
A healthy 39-year-old woman who has a healthy male child was referred to outpatient clinic at 10 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age
. Her physical examination, biochemical screening test and USG findings were normal.
Pregnancy and delivery are at high risk in these patients due to poor antenatal care, closely spaced pregnancies, lack of effective contraception, advanced maternal age
and inadequate health services5.
We also found that advanced maternal age
is a risk factor for increased retinal hemorrhage.
 reported an association of omphalocoeles with advanced maternal age
. In this series, however, 43% of mothers were <30 years and 16% were [greater than or equal to]30 years.
Advanced maternal age
is associated with Down's syndrome and birth defects along with many obstetric complications and abortions.
An expectant mother is considered to be of advanced maternal age
when 35 or older and of high maternal age when 40 or older (Delbaere et al., 2007).
While acknowledging that routine screening for structural and fetal anomalies is 'not yet practical in the public sector', all women of advanced maternal age
(specified as over 37 years) are referred to a specialist health facility or a maternal fetal ultrasound unit.
Advanced maternal age
remains the major well-documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction.
Another study concluded that the most important obstetric factors for placenta previa were advanced maternal age
greater than 34 years, 3 or more previous pregnancies, parity of two or more, rising number of previous abortions, history of previous cesarean section, history of drug abuse and previous placenta previa.
Associated factors include multiparity, advanced maternal age
, simultaneous pre-eclampsia and Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome.
I Risk factors that have been independently associated with TUCK include advanced maternal age
(AMA; >35 years), multiparity, diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios, and previous spontaneous abortion.