Children with classical CAG and 21-OHD (CAH) have increased adrenal androgen
secretion that prenatally causes virilization of the external female genitalia.
Deficiency in 21-hydroxylase causes both gluco- and mineralocorticoid deficiency as well as hyperandrogenism due to the diversion of adrenal steroid precursors to adrenal androgens
. Treatment consists of mineralocorticoid supplementation, as well as supraphysiologic glucocorticoid doses to suppress ACTH and minimize formation of adrenal androgens
Suriano et al., "Effect of pioglitazone treatment on the adrenal androgen
response to corticotrophin in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome," Human Reproduction, vol.
In addition, their study revealed that levels of DHEAS, a precursor of adrenal androgens
, have also been decreased in chronic opioid users.
Variations in adrenal androgen
production among (nonhuman) primates.
As is well known, sebum production correlates with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in preadolescent girls and boys, indicating that adrenal androgens
are a major determinant of acne during this phase.
(11) A potential end result of adrenal hyperfunction is the excess production of one of the three corticosteroids; Cortisol, aldosterone or adrenal androgens
The most useful measurement of adrenal androgen
production in women is dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), which is reliable and can be used if a clinician suspects an adrenal cause for androgen insufficiency.
Cancer cells secrete excess levels of several adrenal cortical hormones, causing cortisol and adrenal androgen
levels to remain elevated.
Therefore it has been hypothesized that 11KT is a major adrenal androgen
, responsible for suppression of gonadal functions observed in poorly controlled 21OHD (10).
In addition to imaging characteristics, hormonal measurements could aid in the differential diagnosis because a great elevation of adrenal androgen
levels, and in particular, DHEAS, could indicate the presence of primary adrenal malignancy.
Michelle Petri of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and her associates reported significant increases of BMD that averaged 1.7% in the lumbar spine and 2% in the hip among 24 women with lupus who took the adrenal androgen
prasterone (also known as dehydroepiandrosterone or DHEA), compared with 31 women who received place bo.
At baseline, women with FSD had significantly decreased levels of testosterone and adrenal androgen
precursors (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate or DHEA-S) but not ovarian androgen precursors (androstenedione), compared with women with normal sexual function.
Additionally, in this report, adrenal androgen
production was not explored .
These increased concentrations of progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) are shunted into the adrenal androgen
pathway and lead to increased concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, which are then peripherally converted to testosterone.