Example (10b) shows a change in word order (preposition [right arrow] postposition), accompanied by suppletion of the adposition
(in [right arrow] uit).
The relaxation of rules mainly concerns contextual translation dependencies of adpositions
, head nouns, determiners, the number feature, and verbals.
In the syntactic rule represented in (9), there is a change of category from adposition
, adverb and pronoun into adjective, as in andlang 2 'along', allefne2 'universally' and aenig 2 'any, any one':
Languages that fall into this group have one adposition
or case ending that is used in all three cases.
Consider the following example where nothing stands in the way of analyzing anda as an adposition
to a (fronted) noun in allative case:
We study three Finnish adpositional constructions where the path adposition
lapi 'through' is used, and compare the degrees of force dynamics expressed in these constructions.
adverbs from adposition
plus inflected noun: togadere 'together'
Recipients as possessors may be expressed either as a dative case-marked NP or as the first object in a double object construction, while recipients as goals are expressed using a locative or allative case marker or adposition
This article provides a definition of lexical categories, that is, Noun, Adjective, Verb, Adposition
, and Adverb, which complies with the descriptive (morphological) and explanatory (semantic) requisites for the establishment of the domains of the layered structure of the clause in functional theories of language, more specifically, in Functional Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar.
On the other hand, the adposition
jalkeen did not acquire this new function.
1) Although the topic here is "case", which in some theories is limited to core grammatical cases and/or dependent morphology (noun inflection), we have included semantically highly specified functions of noun phrases and have not limited ourselves to morphological case but have also included morphologically independent material such as adpositions
(in many languages, the distinction between case inflection and adposition
depends on the theoretical approach anyway).
An Estonian adposition
invariably belongs to a noun phrase.
A B Object Verb Adverb Verb Main Verb Modal Noun Modifier Noun (Adjective, Relative Clause, Adverbial attribute, Genitive attribute) Standard of comparison Comparative adjective Noun phrase Adposition
(Preposition, Postposition) Vennemann (1974: 345-346)
Thus we can observe an affinity between the two tables (3a-b): the non-finite patterns although preferring an illative formative in the literary language, demonstrate a dialect translative counterpart to parallel the noun-derivation practice attested for adpositions
, and the local cases locative, ablative and prolative are attested in both the non-finite morphology and the four-case pattern of this adverb/adposition
The function of an adposition
can be adopted by a verb form (Uuspold 2001, see also Jaakola 1997).