This wonderful composition is comprised of seventy-three stanzas in ramkali meter and comfortably nestled between pages 938 and 946 of the Adi Granth
, the sacred Sikh scripture.
It is the words of the Adi Granth
which provide the most pervasive sound in the complex, its text sung by Granthis (priests) who, in continuous three-hour shifts, intone the entire book over the course of the day, accompanied by squeeze-box harmoniums and the unmistakeably Indian sound of the tabla drums.
The Adi Granth
is the first sacred book of the Sikhs, compiled by their fifth guru, Arjan (1563-1606, guru from 1581).
As is generally known, the Adi Granth
(AG) in its canonic form, redacted by the fifth Sikh guru, Arjan, in 1604, contains verses, arranged by musical raga, composed by the first five of the Sikh Gurus, namely Nanak, Amgad, Amar Das, Ram Das, and Arjan.
Sikh tradition maintains that the fifth Guru, Arjan (1563-1606) produced the "first canonical text" of the Adi Granth
It is the first study in English, since Surindar Singh Kohli's 1961 A Critical Study of the Adi Granth
, to attempt a systematic overview of the AG.
In the first of these, Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth
(Albany: State Univ.
It also discusses a notice found in seventeenth-century manuscripts recording a verse of the fifth Guru, Arjan, supposed to have been written in a manuscript copy of the Adi Granth
by Guru Har Rai.
And although they lack the support of any explicit evidence in contemporary sources, there may nevertheless be available for them implicit reinforcement, derived from an investigation of the earliest manuscripts of the Adi Granth
Trumpp not only reinforced the view that Sikhism was "a form of Hinduism," but also made some offensive remarks in his introduction to The Adi Granth
Pashaura Singh had earned the degree in Religious Studies with a dissertation entitled "The Text and Meaning of the Adi Granth
," and was the first person to have graduated at the doctoral level in Sikh Studies from a Canadian university.
The more controversial topics taken up in the book include the historical evolution and nature of key texts such as the Adi Granth
, the Dasam Granth, the more important hagiographies about Guru Nanak, and the texts that specify the rahit or code of belief and discipline for members of the Khalsa community.
As early as the beginning of the eighteenth century, mainstream Sikh tradition began to contend that the existence of Mina bani(9) composed in the name of Guru Nanak had caused Guru Arjan to compile the Adi Granth
in order to safeguard the sanctity of the Gurus' authentic compositions.
There are certain groups within the Panth which take a rigorous view of their Sikh duty and of the Sikh scriptures, particularly the Adi Granth
(the "Guru Granth Sahib").
14) While in jail the fifth Sikh Guru was often beaten in order to persuade him to convert to Islam and to incorporate into the recently compiled Sikh scripture, the Adi Granth
(First/Primal Book), hymns in praise of the Prophet Muhammad.