Classical allergies are part of the adaptive immune system
, are an IgE antibody hypersensitivity reaction, and include atopic dermatitis, asthma, hay fever, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.
Since A20 down-regulates both the innate and adaptive immune systems
, the activation of A20 in the context of an anthrax infection could enable the pathogen to escape the immune response, thereby increasing virulence.
We hypothesize that an impairment of the adaptive immune system
may also play a role in the altered immune reaction that leads to NEC development.
If this initial inflammatory response does not eliminate the pathogen, the adaptive immune system
comes into play.
While the innate immune system is launching its first attacks, the adaptive immune system
starts to ramp up its targeted defenses that include "smart" weapons like antibodies against specific organisms and the group of immune system cells known as T-cells.
Many standard elements of the adaptive immune system
also have been described in bats, including multiple immunoglobulins, antibody responses, interleukins and other cytokines, and cell-mediated T-cell responses (although investigations of the latter have been limited ).
Because the adaptive immune system
is so specific to individual antibodies, it relies on the innate system to provide signals that invaders are both foreign and dangerous--the responses of the innate system permit the adaptive system to begin ramping up.
A vaccine is designed to stimulate the adaptive immune system
before you're exposed to the virus and bacteria so when you do encounter it, your body is ready to spring into action before the pathogen can make you sick.
One way to get around these defenses is to wipe out the mouse's own adaptive immune system
AD is a pruritic chronic or localized inflammatory disease that results from barrier defects combined with modified immune responses of the innate and the adaptive immune system
to exogenous and endogenous factors, so that these patients demonstrate compromised skin barrier.
It also primes the adaptive immune system
in case the insult persists.
The adaptive immune system
is thought to be a rich source of protein biomarkers, but diagnostically useful antibodies remain undiscovered for a large number of diseases, Dr.
Excelimmune's antibody therapies harness the diversity and effectiveness of the human body's adaptive immune system
Our second line of defence is made up of the cells and antibodies of our adaptive immune system
When the immune system is addressed, the lessons often focus on the adaptive immune system
and the "charismatic" T cells, B cells, and macrophage cells that comprise it.