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As an adapter protein, GRB2 has been identified as a major mediator in Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, which is essential for growth factor-induced cell proliferation and differentiation and plays a central role in embryo development and malignant transformation.
Through adapter proteins, such as the IRS, converts class I isoforms phosphorylate membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) (28).
MyD88 is a universal adapter protein used by almost all TLRs, except TLR-3, to link members of the TLR and interleukin-1 receptor superfamily for downstream activation of NF-[kappa]B and mitogen-activated protein kinases [42].
The adapter protein CrkII mediates the formation of multiprotein signaling complexes in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell motility, and phagocytosis in a Racl-dependent manner [34, 44, 45].
Written and edited by experts in the field this volume includes 17 contributions covering ITAM-mediated signaling by the T-cell antigen receptor, ZAP-70 as an essential kinase in T-cell signaling, the coordination of receptor signaling in multiple hematopoietic cell lineages by the adapter protein SLP-76, an enigmatic tail of CD28 signaling, lipid signaling in T-cell development and function, the mediation of T-cell activation by actin meshworks, understanding the structure and function of the immunological synapse, and perspectives for computer modeling in the study of T-cell activation.
BCAR1/p130Cas is an adapter protein involved in many different cellular signaling processes (4,5).
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