, Zoantharia and Ceriantharia from shallow water in the North Western Gulf of Mexico.
A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria
All except a few poorly documented species of Actiniaria are benthic as adults (attached to firm substrata or burrowed into soft substrata); none of the data analyzed were from the planktonic larval stage of life.
Of the 1089 species of Actiniaria considered valid as of 1 April 2012 (Fautin, 2013), we analyzed data on 1053 (97%), for which the database contained 13,806 occurrence records.
2003), and morphology of the nematocyst capsule provides the only morphological evidence for monophyly of the hexacorallian order Actiniaria
(Reft and Daly, 2012).
6 Porifera + Ophiuroidea + Polychaeta Echinoidea 38 Actiniaria
+ Polychaeta Porifera (spp.
Embryonic and larval development in the Actiniaria
are diverse, often being influenced by the yolk content of the eggs, which varies among species (Uchida and Yamada, 1968; Mergner, 1971; Campbell, 1974; Spaulding, 1974; Conn, 1991).
A study of the spirocytes from the Ceriantharia and Actiniaria