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Because act utilitarianism focuses on each individual act, every decision involves a moral "calculation" of the utility gained or lost by such an action.
It would have been interesting to see whether Colombatto agrees with these arguments and whether his critique of consequentialism applies only to act utilitarianism.
Parfit disagrees: the concept of "wrongfulness" does no work in act utilitarianism.
Indeed, a well-known objection to the sustainability of utilitarianism through rules is that in the end it collapses into a form of act utilitarianism.
Although Bagaric and Clarke claim that pretty much any of the available contemporary normative ethical theories, including deontological theories, will justify torture in these circumstances, they themselves endorse a form of consequentialism, namely, traditional hedonistic act utilitarianism [28].
Hedonistic act utilitarianism can be implemented in a straightforward manner.
In twenty or so pages, the author gives us one of the best discussions of the questions of rule and act utilitarianism that this reader has encountered.
The first statement refers to act utilitarianism and the second to rule utilitarianism.