Then, the practice of turning the mass periodically stimulates the growth of acetic acid bacteria
"Acetic acid bacteria
and wine: All is well until oxygen enters the scene," Aust.
Gluconobacter as well as Asaia species, newly emerging opportunistic human pathogens among acetic acid bacteria
. J Clin Microbiol.
Acetic acid bacteria
can initiate aerobic deterioration of whole crop maize silage.
However, four atypical strains of acetic acid bacteria
were present in all three cases that persisted into the wine.
(1988) revealed that acetic acid bacteria
could be solely responsible for initiating spoilage in whole-crop maize silage, and Liu et al.
Acetic acid bacteria
are gram-negative bacilli classified into the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, and the recently described genus Asaia; these bacteria belong to the a subgroup of Proteobacteria (3).
She added that strict aerobic organisms like Filamentous fungi and acetic acid bacteria
cannot compete in low-oxygen conditions, but anaerobic and facultative anaerobes like Saccharomyces and ML bacteria do grow.
Yeasts, moulds, and acetic acid bacteria
are considered the main microorganisms associated with aerobic spoilage; however, the populations of Bacillus spp.
To the Editor: The genus Acetobacter belongs to the group of acetic acid bacteria
that oxidize alcohols or sugars incompletely, leading to the accumulation of acetic acid.
The large array of microorganisms present on the grape berry surface typically have little impact on grape and wine quality However, if the integrity of the grape berry surface is compromised through rain/ hail damage or Botrytis infection, then rapid growth of oxidative yeast and acetic acid bacteria
Microbes to watch out for: Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria
Further, their results indicated that sulfites can throw organisms into the VBNC state; that re-introducing oxygen into an anaerobic environment can resuscitate them; and that Brettanomyces, as well as lactic and acetic acid bacteria
, can suck it in and slip past a .45-micron filter as VBNCs.
Keep the lactic acid bacteria at bay during fermentation--including perhaps a pre-emptive dash of Lysozyme at the crusher--and make life hard for acetic acid bacteria
I include "V.A." or vinegar formation as "oxidation" because it occurs only through metabolic oxidation of the alcohol in wine by acetic acid bacteria
. A tight barrel neither leaks wine out of the barrel nor leaks air into the barrel during storage.