This has been reported for other acanthurid
species and it is thought that its presence can help the fish more rapidly and efficiently grind up plant tissues, which would optimize digestion and energy assimilation (Randall 1967).
The presence of the acanthurid
Prionurus chrysurus Randall, 2001 at Nusa Penida (also Bali, Lombok and Komodo) provides an additional example of this phenomenon.
niger, and Chlorurus sordidus) and an acanthurid
(Acanthurus lineatus) have been shown between mid- and outer-shelf locations on the northern GBR (Gust et al.
These other studies demonstrated significant differences in age structures, somatic growth, mortality, and otolith growth among individual reefs within a single geographic region for several smaller reef-associated lutjanid, acanthurid
and pomacentrid species.
Although similar to another kyphosid, the life-spans of both opaleye and halfmoon seem short when compared to similar sized temperate herbivorous acanthurids
(surgeonfish) and scarids (parrotfish), in which most fishes reached a maximum age of over 20 years (Choat and Robertson 2002).