Other group punishments might include cancelling one daily meal, confining internees to their rooms, cancelling letter-writing privileges, and the like (Shanghai mengguo qiaomin, 17; Abkhazi 2002, 124-29).
Internees also frequently heard about the outside world through the "bamboo wireless," i.e., Chinese who would shout out information to them from the other side of the compound walls (Cliff 1998, 149-150; Grover 1989, 110; Abkhazi 2002, 74).
and the red, yellow and green parachutes opening like some fabulous flowers--as pretty as a giant firework display" (Abkhazi 2002, 150).
(2) After Japan's defeat in 1945, the term commonly used in Chinese for these camps was jizhong ying, which literally translates as "concentration camp." In English, however, it is customary to use the term "internment camp." Internees were forbidden to use the term "internment" in letters to the outside world (Abkhazi 2002, 51).
To Hobbs and his group of Kiwi gardening enthusiasts, who came to Victoria specifically to see Abkhazi Garden, this is far more than a collection of pretty plants.
The Abkhazi name and the garden's heritage draw people from around the globe to this small sanctuary.
The garden was created in 1946 by Prince Nicolas Abkhazi, born to royalty in the Russian state of Georgia (and exiled after the 1917 Bolshevik revolution), and his British bride, Marjorie (Peggy) Pemberton-Carter.
The garden was threatened in 1999 when a private developer bought the Abkhazi property with a plan to build up to a dozen townhouses on the site.
Hume was inspired, he says, by the similarity of this garden to the Sukhumi Gardens in Nicolas's native Abkhazi province in Georgia.
Putin's first target was Georgia, from which two ethnic minorities, the Abkhazis
and the South Ossetians, had managed to secede, de facto, shortly after Georgia won its own independence in 1991.
There are several cases of communal violence involving groups with less than 1% of the republican population (e.g., Abkhazis
and Adhzeris in Georgia; Meshketian Turks in a variety of republics), but if we allowed all such cases, the percentage in which there was ethnic violence would be quite low.