That's why in these later centuries--the 10th to the 12th centuries--some abbesses
were also ordained deacons.
(49) Heloise may not have been too surprised by this as he had already explained in his previous letter on the history of the nuns that 'in ancient times those whom we now call abbesses
they called deaconesses, as if they were more officers than mothers.' (50) He extols the historical office of deaconess but does not imply that women undertaking the office in the early Christian context may have held positions of authority over communities of women.
But the fact that the abbesses
developed Fontevrault according to the prescribed modes of monastic planning and design does not imply that these women did not leave a distinctive mark on the architecture of Fontevrault.
We can't all become great Abbesses
, but we can all be saints.
There are also other records of what seem to be genuine seventh-century charters recording grants of land to abbesses
. After the Anglo-Saxon period such grants to and by women would not have been possible but in the seventh and eighth centuries they were instrumental in obtaining and securing the land needed for the double foundations.
Anglo-Saxon Women and the Church, on the other hand, is not so much concerned with the lives and works of the queens and abbesses
of the eighth and early ninth century as with the attitudes towards women of the clerics who corresponded with the nuns or wrote treatises for their edification or education.
The book's subtitle highlights the specifically philosophical content of the work of the Arnauld abbesses
. First, C.
were powerful and acted independently not only of the papacy, but also of the local bishop.
Macy's arguments about how even the role of abbesses
came to be reduced by the combined assemblage of university-trained canonists, theologians, philosophers, and popes are compelling.
Voix des abbesses
du Grand Siecle: La Predication au feminin a Port-Royal: Context rhetorique et Dossier.
This book puts the abbesses
and prioresses of medieval English nunneries at the centre of investigation.
Egeria, the first Christian pilgrim to leave written evidence of her fourth-century travels through the Holy Land, frequently sought the blessings of priests, abbots, and abbesses
. In the Middle Ages, Santiago de Compostela in Spain flourished as the premiere pilgrimage destination.
The founding abbots and abbesses
were of royal stock.
The Holy Father expressed this conviction when he met with 220 abbots and abbesses
of the Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance--the Trappists--who are holding their general chapter in Rome from September 4- 24.